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AP Review (Cells, cell division, photosynthesis, inheritance)

Cells, Cell division, Photosynthesis, Inheritance

ApoptosisProgrammed cell death, brought about by signals that activate a cascade of suicide proteins; essential in development of nervous system and normal operation of immune system
Active TransportMovement of molecules against a gradient from a region of low to high concentration
Passive TransportMovement of molecules down a gradient from a region of high to low concentration
MeiosisProduces gametes in gonads; consists of two divisions
MitosisProduces two genetically identical diploid daughter cells
CAM PlantsOpen stomates at night and close them during the day; modified for dry environments
Calvin CycleCarbon fixation; produces a 3-carbon sugar; occurs in stroma
Light-Independent ReactionsOccur in stroma; do not depend on on light directly
Light-Dependent ReactionsLight is absorbed in the thylakoid membranes: ATP is produced, photolysis occurs, and NADP carries H2 to the light-independent reacion
Chromosome StructureKinetochores, centromere, and sister chromatids
SynapsisOccurs in prophase of meiosis !
ChiasmataSite of crossover of nonsister chromatids
MendelFather of modern genetics; collected data from a large sample of plants and applied statistical analysis to his data
Incomplete DominanceCharacterized by blending
CodominanceIn the hybrid condition, both traits show
EpistasisTwo separate genes control one trait, but one gene masks the expression of the other gene
Linked genesGenes on the same chromosome are always inherited together
Sex-Linked TraitsTraits that are on the X chromosome
KaryotypeA procedure carried out to identify chromosomal abnormalities
NondisjunctionAn error that sometimes occurs during meiosis in which homologous chromosomes fail to separate
AutosomesChromosomes other than X and Y sex chromosomes
Fragile X SyndromeNamed for the physical appearance of the X chromosome; the tip of which seems to "hang by a thread"
Watson and CrickProposed the double-helix structure of DNA, received the Nobel prize
TranscriptionThe process by which DNA makes RNA
TranslationThe process by which codons of mRNA are made into an amino acid sequence
VirusesConsist of either RNA or DNA enclosed in a protein coat or capsid
TransductionPhage viruses acquire bits of foreign DNA as they infect different bacterial cells and transfer them to other cells as part of the infection process
Lytic CycleVirus infects and takes over cell, replicates itself, causes the cell to burst, and releases a new generation of infectious viruses
Lysogenic CycleVirus infects cell but replicates without destroying the cells, becomes a prophage
PlasmidForeign, small, circular, self-replicating DNA molecule that inhabits bacteria and can express itself through the host bacterium
DNA ProbeRadioactively labeled single strand of nuclei acid
OperonImportant model for gene regulation; found in prokaryotes only
Polymerase Chain ReactionCell-free, automated technique by which a tiny piece of DNA can be rapidly copied
Complementary DNADNA made from RNA using reverse transcriptase
Gel ElectrophoresisTechnique that separates molecules of DNA in an agarose gel in an electric field
Restriction EnzymesDiscovered in late 1960s in bacteria, where they are a defense against infection by viruses
TelomeresSpecial nucleotide sequences found at the ends of eukaryotic DNA
Transposons"Jumping Genes"; move around the genome
PrionsInfectious, misfolded proteins that cause sever brain diseases
Human GenomeConsists of about 30,000 genes and 3 billion base pairs

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