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Chapter 23 - The Solar System

Test Date - Monday, December 17, 2001


The study of the universe.astronomy
Polish astronomer who proposed a sun-centered solar system.Copernicus
The first person to use a telescope to view the stars and planets.Galileo
Determined that the shapes of the orbits of planets were ellipses.Kepler
Ancient civilization whose philosophers placed the Earth at the center of the universe.Greek
Made up of the the sun and all the objects that orbit system
What does the term "geocentric" mean?Earth-centered
What does the term "heliocentric" mean?Sun-centered
Name the four inner planets.Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars
Name the five outer planets.Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
Solid, rocky planets with iron cores best describe the inner planets or outer planets?inner planets
Planets that are gas giants best describe the inner planets or outer planets?outer planets
The average distance between the sun and the Earth is called a/an ___.astronomical unit
This planet appears red because of the iron oxide (rust) in its rocks.Mars
Which planet is called Earth's twin or sister planet because of its similar size and mass?Venus
This life-supporting planet has water existing under natural conditions in all three states: solid, liquid and gas.Earth
This planet has the shortest period of revolution around the sun.Mercury
This planet is the largest in the solar system.Jupiter
This planet has the lowest density and hundreds of thin rings.Saturn
This moon is closest to Jupiter and has active volcanoes.Io
For about 20 years, this blue-green gas giant was fartherest from the sun.wasNeptune
The Great Red Spot is a continuous storm found on ___.Jupiter
This gas giant has a tilted axis that is nearly parallel with the plane of its orbit so that it appears to "roll".Uranus
The solid portion of a comet is its ___.nucleus
The path of a planet around the sun is called its ___.orbit
These two space probes visited the outer planets during the 1980's.Voyager 1 and 2
This space probe landed on Mercury in 1974.Mariner 10
These two probes sent pictures from Mars in 1976.Viking 1 and 2
This invention was needed for the discovery of Uranus.The telescope
Which of the outer planets is most like an inner planet in terms of its size and composition?Pluto
The term that describes how much longer an ellipse is than it is wide is called ___.eccentricity
How many focii does an ellipse have?2
The cloud of gasses around the solid portion of a comet is known as the ___.coma
The asteroid belt is located between which two planets?Mars and Jupiter
The Great Dark Spot is a huge whirlwind found on which planet?Neptune
The blue-green color of Uranus and Neptune is due to the presence of what gas?methane
Like Pluto, this planet has only one moon.Earth
A "dirty snowball" from space composed of dust, rock particles, frozen water and gases.comet
A cloud of comets that some astronomers think surrounds the solar system.Oort Cloud
A group of meteors.shower
Broken pieces of rock moving through space.meteoroids
Part of a comet formed by the gases streaming away from the sun.tail
A meteoroid that burns up in the Earth's atmosphere.meteor
The mean distance of the Earth from the sun is 93 million miles. What does "mean distance" mean?average distance
A meteoroid that strikes Earth is called a ___.meteorite
The sun changes hydrogen to helium to form energy in a process known as ___.fusion
What must be done to the length of a string to make an ellipse more circular if the two focii (tacks) remain fixed?Lengthen the string
If the length of a string remains the same, what must be done to the distance between the two focii (tacks) to make it more circular?Move the tacks closer together.
If an ellipse becomes more eccentric, it means that its shape is less ___.circular
This Greek philosopher placed the Earth at the center of the universe.Aristotle
This early, modern astronomer thought that the orbits of the planets around the sun were circles.Copernicus
These two planets, when seen from Earth will always appear close to the sun.Mercury and Venus
On this planet a day is longer that a year because of its very slow rotation.Venus

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