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Chapter 06: An Introduction to Metabolism

activation energyamount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called activation energy
active sitespecific portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate by means of weak chemical bonds
allosteric regulationbinding of a molecule to a protein that affects the function of the protein at a different site
anabolic pathwaymetabolic pathway that synthesizes a complex molecule from simpler compounds
ATP (adenosine triphosphate)adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed
bioenergeticsflow of energy through an animal
catabolic pathwaymetabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds
catalystchemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
chemical energyenergy stored in the chemical bonds of molecules; a form of potential energy
coenzymeorganic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions
cofactornon-protein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme
competitive inhibitorsubstance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics
cooperativityinteraction of the constituent subunits of a protein whereby a conformational change in one subunit is transmitted to all the others
endergonic reactionnon-spontaneous chemical reaction
energycapacity to do work
energy couplingthe use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
entropyquantitative measure of disorder or randomness
enzymeprotein serving as a catalyst
enzyme-substrate complextemporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s)
exergonic reactionspontaneous chemical reaction
feedback inhibitioncontrol where the end product of pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway
first law of thermodynamicsenergy can be transferred and transformed
free energyenergy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform
free energy of activationamount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called activation energy
heattotal amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
induced fitchange in shape of the active site so that it binds more snugly to substrate
kinetic energyenergy of motion
metabolic pathwayseries of chemical reactions that either builds or breaks down a complex molecule
metabolismtotality of an organism’s chemical reactions
non-competitive inhibitorreduces the activity of enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site
phosphorylatedmolecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group
potential energyenergy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement
second law of thermodynamicsenergy transformations result in less usable forms of energy
substratereactant on which an enzyme works
thermal energytotal amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter
thermodynamicsstudy of energy transformations that occur in matter

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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