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Chapter 05: Membrane Transport and Cell Signaling

adenylyl cyclaseenzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a chemical signal
cyclic AMP (cAMP)cyclic adenosine monophosphate
diacylglycerol (DAG)second messenger produced by the cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane
G proteinGTP-binding protein elays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell
G-protein-linked receptorsignal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding signal molecule by activating a G protein
hormonesignals that are formed in specialized cells
inositol trisphosphate (IP3)second messenger that functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and a third messenger
ligandmolecule that binds specifically to a receptor site of another molecule
ligand-gated ion channelprotein pore in the plasma membrane that opens or closes in response to a chemical signal
local regulatorchemical messenger that influences cells in the vicinity
protein kinaseenzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein
protein phosphataseenzyme that removes phosphate groups from proteins
receptiontarget cell’s detection of a signal molecule from outside the cell
receptor tyrosine kinasereceptor protein of plasma membrane that responds to the binding of a signal molecule by catalyzing transfer of phosphate from ATP to tyrosines on the cytoplasmic side of the receptor
responsechange in a specific cellular activity brought about by a transduced signal from outside the cell
scaffolding proteinlarge relay protein to which several other relay proteins are simultaneously attached to increase the efficiency of signal transduction
second messengersmall
signal transduction pathwaymechanism linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response
transductionconversion of a signal from outside the cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
tyrosine kinaseenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups from ATP to the amino acid tyrosine on a substrate protein

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