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Bring Meaning to Motion

Examine the main ideas concerning Newton's Laws of Motion. (Used in grade 7 Science)

INERTIAcharcteristic of all matter -- depends on object's mass
LAW OF INERTIABody at rest or in motion stays at rest or in motion in straight line, unless acted on by force.
ISAAC NEWTONwrote laws of motion , scientist and mathematician, lived about 1700
SPEEDdistance traveled in certain amount of time, how fast body is moving at a specific moment
VELOCITYspeed and direction an object moves
SPEED FORMULAspeed(velocity) = distance/time
ACCELERATIONhow fast speed changes, rate of change in speed, speeding up or slowing down
ACCELERATION FORMULAacceleration = (final velocity - starting velocity) / change in time
DECELERATIONnegative acceleration, slowing down, losing speed
FACTORS DETERMINING ACCELERATIONmass of body and force acting on body
LAW OF ACTION REACTIONFor each force (action force), there is an equal and opposite reaction force
Gthe force of gravity at sea level, a unit of gravitational force
ACCELERATION OF GRAVITYacceleration of any falling object caused by the pull of gravity, 9.8 m/s/s
TERMINAL VELOCITYspeed reached when falling object stops accelerating, air resistance equals pull of gravity
CENTRIPETAL FORCEany force toward the inside of a curved or circular path
2 THINGS CAUSE CURVED PATHbody's inertia and the centripetal force on it
CENTRIFUGAL FORCENOT a real force, really inertia moving object in straight line during curve
"BANKED" CURVEoutside of curve is raised to allow gravity to pull body to inside (centripetal force)
CENTRIPETAL FORCE EXAMPLESgravity holding Earth in orbit around sun (also moon around Earth), friction between tires and road
MOMENTUMcharacteristic of all moving matter, product of mass and speed of body
MOMENTUM FORMULAmomentum = mass X velocity (p=m x v)
2 FACTORS DETERMINE MOMENTUMmass and velocity of object
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUMMomentum cannot be created or destoyed; it can be transferred form one object to another.
VELOCITY VECTORarrow that represents both speed and direction of motion, scale model

Science 7 teacher
Maple Avenue Middle School
Saratoga Springs, NY

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