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Chapter 36: Reproduction and Development

acrosomal reactiondischarge of a sperm’s acrosome when the sperm approaches an egg
acrosomevesicle at the tip of a sperm cell that helps the sperm penetrate the egg
allantoisserves as a repository for the embryo’s nitrogenous waste.
amnionencloses a fluid-filled sac in which the embryo is suspended
amnioteclade of tetrapods that have an amniotic egg containing specialized membranes that protect the embryo
animal poleportion of the egg where the least yolk is concentrated
apical ectodermal ridgelimb-bud organizer region consisting of a thickened area of ectoderm at the tip of a limb bud
archenteronendoderm-lined cavity formed during the gastrulation process develops into the digestive tract of an animal
blastocoelfluid-filled cavity that forms in the center of the blastula embryo
blastocysthollow ball of cells produced one week after fertilization in humans
blastodermembryonic cap of dividing cells resting on a large undivided yolk
blastomeresmall cell of an early embryo
blastoporeopening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes
blastulahollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
cadherinsimportant class of cell-to-cell adhesion molecules
cell adhesion molecules (CAMs)Glycoproteins that contribute to cell migration and stable tissue structure
cell differentiationstructural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized
chorionoutermost of four extraembryonic membranes contributes to the formation of the mammalian placenta
cleavagesuccession of rapid cell divisions without growth during early embryonic development
convergent extensioncell crawling in which the cells of a tissue layer rearrange themselves in such a way that the sheet of cells becomes narrower while it becomes longer
cortical granulesVesicles located just under the plasma membrane of an egg cell that undergo exocytosis during the cortical reaction
cortical reactionExocytosis of enzymes from cortical granules in the egg cytoplasm during fertilization
cytoplasmic determinantsmaternal substances in the egg that influence the course of early development by regulating the expression of genes
dorsal lipdorsal side of the blastopore
ectodermgives rise to the outer covering and in some phyla the nervous system inner ear and lens of the eye
endodermines the archenteron and gives rise to the liver pancreas lungs and the lining of the digestive tract
extraembryonic membranesmembranes (yolk sac
fast block to polyspermyreaction prevents additional sperm from fusing with the egg’s plasma membrane
fate mapdiagram of embryonic development that reveals the future development of individual cells and tissues
fertilization envelopewelling of the vitelline layer away from the plasma membrane
gastrulationformation of a gastrula from a blastula
germ layersThree main layers that form the various tissues and organs of an animal body
gray crescentlight-gray region of cytoplasm located near the equator of the egg on the side opposite the sperm entry
holoblastic cleavagecleavage in which there is complete division of the egg
inductionability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another
inner cell masscluster of cells in a mammalian blastocyst that protrudes into one end of the cavity and subsequently develops into the embryo proper
invaginationinfolding of cells
involutioncells rolling over the edge of the lip of the blastopore into the interior of the embryo during gastrulation
meroblastic cleavagetype of cleavage in which there is incomplete division of yolk-rich egg
mesodermdevelops into the notochord the lining of the coelom muscles skeleton gonads kidneys and most of the circulatory system
moruladevelopment of body shape and organization
neural crestband of cells along the border where the neural tube pinches off from the ectoderm
neural tubetube of cells running along the dorsal axis of the body just dorsal to the notochord
notochordlong flexible rod that runs along the dorsal axis of the body in the future position of the vertebral column
organogenesisdevelopment of organ rudiments from the three germ layer
pattern formationordering of cells into specific three-dimensional structures
positional informationindicating a cell’s location relative to other cells in an embryonic structure
primitive streakgroove on the surface of an early avian embryo along the future long axis of the body
somiteschanges in the egg’s surface that prevent fusion of the egg with more than one sperm
totipotentcell that can give rise to all parts of an organism
trophoblastouter epithelium of the blastocyst which forms the fetal part of the placenta
vegetal poleportion of the egg where most yolk is concentrated
yolknutrients stored in an egg
yolk pluglarge food-laden endodermal cells surrounded by the blastopore of an amphibian gastrula
yolk sacsupport embryonic development the first site of blood cells and circulatory system function
zona pellucidaextracellular matrix of a mammalian egg
zone of polarizing activity (ZPA)organizer region consisting of a block of mesoderm located where the posterior side of the bud is attached to the body
morphogenesismorphogenesis, development of body shape and organization
slow block to polyspermyslow block to polyspermy, changes in the egg’s surface that prevent fusion of the egg with more than one sperm

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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