Java Games: Flashcards, matching, concentration, and word search.

CM Ch 5: Microprocessors - Matching, Flashcards, Concentration, Word Search

address busWires leading from the CPU to the memory controller chip (usually the Northbridge) that enable the CPU to address RAM.
arithmetic logic unit (ALU)Our friend, man in the box.
backside busSet of wires that connect to the CPU to Level 2 Cache.
binaryNumber system with a base of 2, unlike the number systems most of us use that have bases of 10 (decimal numbers), 12 (measurement in feet and inches), and 60 (time).
bitSingle binary digit. Also, any device that can be in and on or off state.
byteUnit of eight bits; fundamental data unit of personal computers.
cacheSpecial area of RAM that stores the data most frequently accessed from the hard drive. Cache memory can optimize the use of your systems.
(CPU) central processing unitThe big chip inside your computer that many people often describe as the brain of the system.
CentrinoMarketing name for an Intel laptop solution including the mobile processor, support chips and wireless networking.
clock cycleSingle charge to the clock wire of a CPU.
clock-multiplying CPUCPU that takes the incoming clock signal and multiplies it inside the CPU to let the internal circuitry of the CPU run faster.
clock speedSpeed at which a CPU executes instructions, measure in MHz or GHz. In modern CPUs, the internal speed is a multiple of the external speed.
clock wireCharge on the CLK wire to tell the CPU that another piece of information is waiting to be processed.
dual coreThese types of CPUs have two execution units on the same physical chip but share caches and RAM.
dynamic RAM (DRAM)Uses both a constant electrical charge and a periodic refresh of the circuits; otherwise, it loses data - that's what makes it dynamic rather than static in content.
external data bus (EDB)Primary data highway of all computers.
floating poing unit (FPU)The integer unit that works at any execution stage.
frontside busWires that connect the CPU to the main system RAM. Generally running at speeds of 66-133 MHz.
heat dope (thermal compound)Paste-like material with very high heat-transfer properties. Applied between the CPU and the cooling device, it ensures the best possible dispersal of heat from the CPU.
instruction setAll of the machine-language commands that a particular CPU is designed to understand.
machine languageBinary instruction code that is understood by the CPU.
memoryDevice or medium for temporary storage of programs and data during program execution.
memory controller chip (MMC)Chip that handles memory requests from the CPU. Although once a special chip, it has been integrated into the chipset on all PCs today.
microprocessor"Brain" of a computer. Primary computer chip that determines relative speed and capabilities of the computer.
multimedia extensions (MMX)Specific CPU instructions that enable a CPU to handle many multimedia functions, such as digital signal processing.
overclockingTo run a CPU or video processor faster than its rated speed.
parallel processingWhen a multicore CPU processes more than one thread.
pipelineProcessing methodology where multiple calculations take place simultaneously by being broken into a series of steps.
programSeries of binary electronic commands sent to a CPU to get work done.
random access memory (RAM)Memory that can be accessed at random; that is, which you can write to or read from without touching the preceding address. A computer's main memory.
registersStorage area inside the CPU used by the onboard logic to perform calculations.
single-edge cartridge (SEC)CPU package where the CPU was contained in a cartridge that snapped into a special slot on the motherboard called Slot 1.
single-edge processor (SEP)The Celerons that included a protective covering.
static RAM (SRAM)RAM that uses a flip-flop circuit rather than the typical transistor/capacitor of DRAM to hold a bit of information.
system crystalCrystal that provides the speed signals for the CPU and the rest of the system.
System Management Mode (SMM)Provided CPUs the ability to turn off high-power devices (monitors, hard drives, etc.).
throttlingPower reduction/thermal control capability allowing CPUs to slow down during low activity or high heat build-up situations.
voltage regulator module (VRM)Small card supplied with some CPUs to ensure that the CPU gets correct voltage.
wait stateOccurs when the CPU has to wait for RAM to provide code. Also known as pipeline stalls.
zero insertion force (ZIF) socketSocket for CPUs that enables insertion of a chip without the need to apply pressure.

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