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Matter & Minerals Unit 4

High School
Earth Science
Chapters 3-6

elementa natural or artificial substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by any means
protonsub-atomic particle that has a positive charge and the same mass as a neutron
neutronsub-atomic particle that has no charge (neutral) and has the same mass as a proton
electronsub-atomic particle that has mass and a negative electrical charge
octet ruleatoms are most stable when they have 8 valence electrons in their outer shell
ionic bondan attractive force between two ions with opposite charges
covalent bondan attraction of two atoms for a shared pair of electrons that holds the atoms together
solidmatter that has a fixed volume and shape
liquidmatter that has a fixed volume but no fixed shape
gasmatter with no fixed volume or shape
mineralnaturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and definite crystalline structure that forms from magma or supersaturated solutions
orea mineral that is mined for profit
igneous rockmagma that turns to solid
sedimentary rocksediments pressed together
metamorphic rockrocks that form from extreme heat and pressure
rock cyclerocks transform into other types of rocks
atomsmallest particle of an element
nucleuscenter of an atom, made of up neutrons and protons
chemical bondforces that holds the atoms of elements together in a compound
hardnessmeasure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
lusterdescribes the metallic or nonmetallic way that a mineral reflects light
streakcolor a mineral leaves when it is rubbed across an unglazed porcelain plate
cleavageability of a mineral to break easily and evenly along one or more flat planes
gemrare, precious, highly prized mineral that can be cut, polish, used for jewelry
crystalsolid in which atoms are arranged in repeated patterns
magmamolten material found beneath Earth's crust
silicatemineral that contains silicon and oxygen and usually one or more other elements

North Carolina Virtual Public School

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