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Chapter 5, Lesson 1, 2, and 3

Food in Your Life
Nutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats
Nutrients: Vitamins, Minerals, and Water

nutrientsthe substances in food that your body needs to function properly to grow, to repair itself, and to supply you with energy
hungera natural drive that protects you from starvation
appetitea desire, rather than a need, to eat
nutritionthe process by which the body takes in and uses food
carbohydratesthe starches and sugars found in foods
glucosea simple sugar and the body's chief fuel
proteinsnutrients that help build and maintain body tissues
glycogenstarch-like substance stored in the liver and muscles
amino acidssubstances that make up body proteins
lipida fatty substance that does not dissolve in water
linoleic acidan essential fatty acid not make in the body but which is essential for growth and healthy skin
cholesterola fatlike substance produced in the liver of all animals and, therefore, found only in foods of animal origin
fiberform of carbohydrate found in tough, stringy part of vegetables, fruits and grains
complete proteinsfoods that contain all the essential amino acids
incomplete proteinsfoods that lack some of the essential amino acids
saturated fatsfatty acid that holds all the hydrogen atoms it can
unsaturated fatsfatty acid that is missing one or more pairs of hydrogens
function of fatcarries vitamins A, D, E, and K; insulation and cushion organs
function of proteinsgrowth throughout life, makes enzymes, hormones, and antibodies
function of carbohydratesbroken down into glucose and used as energy by the body
vitaminscompounds that help regulate many vital body processes, including the digestion, absorption and metabolism of other nutrients
mineralsinorganic substances that the body cannot manufacture but that act as catalysts, regulating many vital body processes
water soluble vitaminsvitamins that dissolve in water and pass easily into the bloodstream in the process of digestion
fat soluble vitaminsvitamins that are absorbed and transported by fat; vit. A, D, E, and K
watermost abundant substance in the body; regulates all bodily functions
vitamin Ccitrus fruits, cantaloupe, tomatoes, cabbage; protects against infections, heals wounds, promotes health gums and teeth
vitamin B1whole grain or enriched cereals, liver yeast, nuts; changes glucose into energy or fat
vitamin B2milk, cheeze, spinach; helps produce energy from nutrients and keeps skin in healthy condition
vitamin B6wheat bran and germ, liver, meat; metabolize amino acid and carbohydrates
Niacinmilk, eggs, poultry; maintenance of all body tissues and helps in energy production
Folic acidorange juice, nuts, green vegetables; production of RNA and DNA and form RBCs; reduces risk of birth defects
vitamin B12animal products; production of red blood cells and normal growth
Fantothenic acidmilk, cheese, poultry, wheat germ; breakdown and synthesis of carb, proteins and fats
vitamin Amilk and other dairy products, green vegetables; Maintenance of skin, strengthens tooth enamel and promotes use of calcium and phosphurus
vitamin Dfortified milk, eggs, fortified cereals, sun; absorption and use of calcium and phosphorus
vitamin Evegetable oils, legumes, nuts; transports oxygen and protects against destruction of red blood cells
vitamin Kspinach, broccoli, eggs; essential for blood clotting
Calciumdairy products, leafy vegetables, edible bones; building material of bones and teeth
Sodiumtable salt, soy sauce, milk, processed foods; regulates fluid and transmits nerve impulses
Potassiumbananas, potatoes, legumes; controls the acid-base and liquid balaces
Ironmeats peanuts, egg yolks, fortified cereal; part of the red blood cells' oxygen and carbon dioxide transport system
Sulfurnuts, barley, dried fruits; component of insulin and some amino acids; build hair, nails, skin
Fluoridefound in fluoridated water, fish with edible bones; for normal tooth and bone development
Chloridefound in table salt; a part of gastric juices, hydrochloric acid

Ms. Mar

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