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Unit 3- Sensation and Perception

These games review terminology from the unit

Sensationarousal of a sense organ
perceptionhow you interpret information
Sensory transductionprocess by which stimuli is turned into an impulse the brain understands
absolute thresholdminimum stimulus you can detect 50% of the time
difference thresholdamount of change necessary for you to detect a change in the stimulus 50% of the time
Weber's lawthe greater the original stimulus, the greater the change needed to detect a difference
Signal detection theoryno abolute threshold because thresholds change with a variety of factors like fatigue, attention, etc
Subliminal perceptioncontroversial idea that messages below absolute threshold can influence behavior
sclerawhite part of the eye, provides protection and structure
corneaclear, outer covering, protects the interior
lensbeneath cornea, clear tissue, bends light rays so the retina can focus
pupilopening in the iris, changes due to light and emotional state
iriscolored part of the eye, muscle that contracts the pupil
retinacontains receptor cells, image forms here and attaches to the optic nerve
rodsreceptor cells detect brightness, located in the outer edge of the retina
conesreceptor cells, detect color, located in the center of the retina
foveacenter of the retina, all cones are located here
optic nervenerve fiber that takes information to the occipital lobe
blind spotarea in each eye where you cannot see because this is where the optic nerve connects to the retina
optic chasmjunction where the two optic nerves cross
Hubel-Weisel theoryTheory that says you need to practice seeing things during a critical period of development (before 2 years of age)
Visible spectrumwavelengths of light which can be seen by the human eye
White lightComes directly from the source, it has not been broken down into frequencies
Sensory adaptationchange in receptor activity due to prolonged exposure to unchanging stimuli
Binocular/Stereoscopic Visioneyes combine to create one visual image
Huedifference in wavelengths;"color"
Negative After-ImageThe firing of the cones not used after viewing something steadily in order to bring the visual system back into balance
Young-Hemholtz theory/trichromatic theorymalfunction of cones which causes colorblindness
Opponent Process TheorySomething is wrong with the retina and the thalamus, colors don't block
Visual CliffWalk and Gibson's apparatus used to show depth perception in children
ConvergenceBinocular cues,retina bulges when things get closer
Accomodationchange in curvature of lens to focus eye sight
InterpositionKnowing what is close to you and what is farther away based on one object blocking the other
Motion ParallaxNear objects seem to move more rapidly than far away objects
Texture Gradientthe closer something is, the more detail one can perceive
Linear Perspectiveparallel lines appear to converge at a distance
Shape Constancyperception of the shape of object remains constant despite changes in the visual field
Size Constancyperception of the size of object remains the same regardless of changes in visual field
Color and Brightness Constancyperception of color or brightness of object stays constant despite a change in visual field
Bottom-Up Processingsensory information is sent to the brain via sensory neurons to analyze
Top-Down Processingtemplates in the brain give meaning to what one is seeing, then the information is sent
Gestaltorganized whole, shape, or form
Figure Ground Perceptionminds have tendencies to organize pictures as separate enitities from the background
Law of Pragnanztendency to see things in their simplest form
Closurebrain fills in missing pieces of a visual image
Similaritya perceptual cue in which we group like things together
Proximitya perceptual cue in which we group together things that are near one another
Pinnaouter, fleshy ear, gathers sound and directs it into the ear
Tympanic MembranePiece of skin streched over the entrance of the ear; vibrates to sound; separates the middle from the outer ear, eardrum
Cochleasnail shaped part of the ear filled with fluid and small hairs that vibrate to incoming sound
Basilar Membranepart of the cochlea which connects to the auditory nerves and takes information to the temporal lobe
DecibelsA measure of how loud a sound is
PitchFrequency or rate of sound waves
Volumeheight and amplitude of sound waves
conduction deafnessdeafness due to damage to the bones of the middle ear ; is correctable
nerve deafnessnot treatable; damage to auditory nerve system; problems with high pitch
smellolfaction; receptors located in mucous membrane
ciliatiny hairs that receive odor molecules; act as receptors in nose and as filters
olfactory bulbsunits that receive odor molecules and communicates their nature to the brain
olfactory nervesmells transfer to this then sent to temporal lobe
taste (gustation)salt, sweet, sour, bitter; must be in liquid form to be tasted
taste budslocated on tongue and roof of mouth; decode molecules of food or drink to identify them
cutaneous skin sensationwarmth, coldness, pain, pressure
kinesthetic sensejoints, ligaments, muscles; allows bodies to move in space
vestibular sensesense of equilibrium; located in inner ear; deals with motion sickness
phantom limb paincan occur to amputees, experience pain and pressure in an area that is no longer there
synesthesiamiswired senses; ex. see tastes, etc
monocular cuescues for depth perception seen by one eye
color blindnessinability to distinguish between colors due to deficiencies in the cones
retinal disparitydifferent image each eye receives
dark adaptationa shift from predominantly cone vision to predominantly rod vision; adjusting to low level of light when something suddenly goes dark
phi phenomenonillusion of mvmt created by rapidly appearing stimuli (Christmas lights)
Fechnerabsolute threshold
gate control theorybelief that a neural mechanism resides in brain to allow some pain through and not other
hits/missesaccuracy or inaccuracy on sensation and perception testing mechanisms
sensory habituationperception influenced by how focused we are on sensations
inattentional blindnessfailure to see visible objects when attention is directed elsewhere
psychophysicsstudy of sensation and perception
visual capturetendency for vision to dominate other senses
bipolar cellscells in retina that connect rods and cones to ganglion cells
ganglion cellsin retina, connects bipolar cells to optic nerve
papillaelocated on the sprouts/bumbs on the tongue; taste buds sit on top of
feature detectorsneurons that respond to specific features
parallel processingdoing many things at once to create one perception
intensityamount of amplitude of light wave
sensorineural hearling lossnerve deafness

AP Psychology teacher @ FHS
Frederick High School
Frederick, MD

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