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9AP Chapter 12 - The Cell Cycle (Basic)

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AB
What are the four phases of the cell cycle?G1, S, G2, and M p231,
Chromosomes are only visible (with a light microscope) when ___.the cell is dividing (After cell division in the G1 phase, the chromosomes are in the form of a single, long thin chromatin fiber. After DNA replication in the S phase, the chromatin fibers are attached forming two attached sister chromatids, and these start to condense by coiling more tightly, but are not visible with a light microscope until they have completely condensed into discreet visible chromosomes, still referred to as sister chromatids until they have separated into individual chromosomes at the start of anaphase) pp.229&232
During which phase(s) of interphase is the cell growing by producing proteins and organelles?G1, S, and G2 (The cell grows in all three phases of interphase, but only replicates the DNA during the S phase.) p231,
When DNA is replicating, the cell is in the ___ phase of interphase.S p231,
Name the three major phases of interphase in the order that they occur.G1, S, and G2 (Non-dividing cells, such as most nerve cells, spend their time in a phase of interphase called G0, "G-zero") p231,
When the cell is undergoing cell division, it is in the ___ phase.M (The mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle includes mitosis and cytokinesis),
In order, what are the five stages of mitosis?Prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase (remember "I pinched pretty Martha's arm today" for interphase, prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is NOT a stage of mitosis, but it does come before mitosis) pp231-233,
G1, S, and G2 all occur during ____.interphase p231,
Cell division ends when ___ is complete.cytokinesis p230,
The ____ is a series of events that a cell goes through from the time it is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two daughter cells.cell cycle p228,
The ___ is a region of a each sister chromatid in a duplicated chromosome containing specific DNA sequences where the chromatid is attached most closely to its sister chromatid. Proteins associated with this region give the condensed, duplicated chromosome a narrow waist.centromere (The centromere is a region of a each sister chromatid in a duplicated chromosome containing specific DNA sequences where the chromatid is attached most closely to its sister chromatid. Proteins associated with this region give the condensed, duplicated chromosome a narrow waist) p229&230,
The centromere is a region on a chromosome where ______ are held together most closely.sister chromatids pp229&230,
After chromosomes undergo DNA replication, they consist of two identical ____ that are attached to each other along their length by proteins called cohesins (most closely in a region called the centromere).sister chromatids pp229&230,
During which stages of mitosis are sister chromatids attached to each other?prophase, prometaphase and metaphase p232,
During which stage of mitosis do sister chromatids start to separate?anaphase p233,
During which stage of mitosis are sister chromatids lined up along the center of the cell?metaphase (think metaphase = middle) p233,
During which stage of mitosis do the chromosomes condense to become visible?prophase p232,
In animal cells, ________ are found in the centrosome, but don't seem to affect the ability of the cell to undergo mitosis.centrioles p231, , Audio
The division of the cytoplasm itself is called ___.cytokinesis p230,
During which stage of mitosis are the chromosomes divided into the two opposite ends of the cell with the nuclear membrane starting to reform?telophase p233,
The two main stages of cell division are ___.mitosis and cytokinesis (Cell division is considered to be the mitotic (M) phase of the cell cycle. Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in-between cell division) p231, , Audio
During normal cell division, a human cell with 46 chromosomes would produce two daughter cells with ___ chromosomes each.46 p230
The structures labeled A are, sister chromatids (This diagram shows sister chromatids joined only at the centromere, not by cohesin proteins all along the length of the chromatids. Evidently, some species do not have their sister chromatids joined at all points like humans do. See the description of prophase on page 232) p.231,
The structure labeled C is, a centromere (This diagram shows sister chromatids joined only at the centromere, not by cohesin proteins all along the length of the chromatids. Evidently, some species do not have their sister chromatids joined at all points like humans do. See the description of prophase on page 232) p.231,
Cells that divide excessively and invade other tissues are referred to as ____ cells.cancer p242
When cells divide over and over again because of cancer, a lump of cells called a(n) ____ forms.tumor p242
All of the genetic information a cell possesses is called the cell's ______.genome p229
All body cells except reproductive cells are called ____ cells.somatic p229
Another word for reproductive, or sex cells is ________.gametes p229
How many molecules of DNA are contained in one chromosome?one (It's very long. If stretched out, the DNA molecule in a typical human chromosome is about 4 cm long. All of the DNA in a typical human cell could stretch to about 2 meters) p229
The type of cell division that produces sex cells (eggs and sperm) is called ______.meiosis p229, Audio
Prokaryotes reproduce by a type of cell division called ____.binary fission (This term also applies to single-celled eukaryotic organisms like an amoeba, but binary fission in eukaryotic single-celled organisms involves mitosis while prokaryotic organisms to not use the steps of mitosis to divide their genetic material. The term binary fission simply means "division in half.") p236,
Density-dependent inhibition is a phenomenon in which _____ cells stop dividing.crowded (* Cancer cells don't seem to exhibit density-dependent inhibition) p241,
Which type of cells do not seem to be affected by density-dependent inhibition or anchorage dependency?cancer cells p242
A tumor that stays at its original site of growth is called a(n) _____ tumor.benign p242
A tumor that is impacting other organs or tissues (is invasive) and is capable of spreading is called a(n) ______ tumor.malignant (Individuals with malignant tumors are said to have cancer) p242
The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site of development is called _____.metastasis,
The diagram below depicts a cell in ______., anaphase p233,
The process shown below is a special type of cell division called ______ that occurs in _______., binary fission, prokaryotes (This term also applies to single-celled eukaryotic organisms like an amoeba, but binary fission in eukaryotic single-celled organisms involves mitosis while prokaryotic organisms to not use the steps of mitosis to divide their genetic material. The term binary fission simply means "division in half.") p237,
The picture below shows the formation of a _____ in a _____ cell., cell plate, plant cell p235,
The red arrows are pointing to a(n) _____ in a(n) ____ cell., cleavage furrow, animal cell p235,
The diagram below depicts a cell in ______., interphase p232,
The letter "A" in the picture below is pointing to _____., two sister chromatids p234,
The diagram below depicts a cell in ______., metaphase p233,
The diagram below depicts a cell in ______., prophase p232,
The diagram below depicts a cell in ______., prometaphase p232,
The diagram below depicts a cell in ______., telophase p233,
How many chromosomes can be found in the typical human cell?46 p229
How many PAIRS of chromosomes can be found in the typical human cell?23 pairs (One of each of the paired chromosomes comes from the person's father while the other comes from the mother) p229
How many chromosomes can be found in the typical human reproductive cell?23 p229
How many PAIRS of chromosomes can be found in the typical human reproductive cell?zero (after going through meiosis, the newly formed gamete only has 1 of each pair of chromosomes, not both) p229


Truman High School

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