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Industrial Revolution vocab

WHII.9 vocab

Industrial Revolutionthe shift, beginning in England during the 18th century, from making goods by hand to making them by machine
Suez Canala human-made waterway, which was opened in 1869, connecting the Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
demisea time when something ends
James HargreavesEnglish inventor of the spinning jenny
James WattScottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry
Eli WhitneyUnited States inventor of the mechanical cotton gin, which made use of interchangeable parts
Henry Bessemerrevolutionized the way to manufacture steel by making the process quicker and more efficient
Edward Jennerdiscovered the small pox vaccine
Louis Pasteurdiscovered bacteria, and created the process of pasteurizing milk to kill bacteria
industrializedan economy based on manufacturing, not agriculture
urbanizationmovement of people from rural areas to cities
standard of livinga measure of quality of life based on the amounts and kinds of goods and services a person can buy
capitalisman economic system in which the factors of production are privately owned and money is invested in business ventures to make a profit
communisman economic system in which the central government directs all major economic decisions
socialisma political theory advocating state ownership of industry
Adam SmithScottish economist who wrote the Wealth of Nations and designed modern capitalism
entrepreneura person who starts up and takes on the risk of a business
market competitionrivalry among businesses for resources and customers
Karl Marxa founder of Socialism, he saw society as a class struggle; wrote Das Kapital; worked with Friedrich Engels to write The Communist Manifesto
wagesmoney earned for doing work
laborersworkers who do tasks that do not require special skills
suffragethe right to vote
protectoratenation whose independence is limited by the control of a more powerful country
spheres of influenceareas in which countries have some political and economic control but do not govern directly
missionarysomeone sent on a mission - especially a religious or charitable mission to a foreign country
East India Companyan English company formed to develop trade with the new British colonies in India and southeastern Asia; eventually developed their own army and dominated Indian states
natural resourcesmaterials found in nature that are used to create goods

Bassett High School

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