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Chapter 1: Key Terms and People

applied psychologystudy of psychological issues that have direct practical significance and application of psychological findings
basic psychologystudy of psychological issues to seek knowledge for its own sake, not for practical application
behaviorismapproach that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and role of environment as determinant of behavior
biological perspectiveapproach that emphasizes bodily events and changes associated with actions, feelings, and thoughts
cognitive perspectiveapproach that emphasizes mental processes in perception, memory, language, problem solving, and other areas of behavior
critical thinkingability and willingness to assess claims and to make objective judgments on the basis of well-supported reasons
empiricalrelying on or derived from observation, experimentation, or measurement
feminist psychologyapproach that analyzes the influence of social inequities on gender relations and on the behavior of the two sexes
functionalismearly approach that stressed the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness
humanistic psychologyapproach that emphasizes personal growth and the achievement of human potential rather than the scientific understanding and assessment of behavior
intrapsychicwithin the mind (psyche) or self
psychiatrymedical specialty concerned with mental disorders, maladjustment, and abnormal behavior
psychoanalysistheory of personality and a method of psychotherapy that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
psychodynamic theoriesapproaches that emphasize unconscious dynamics within the individual, such as inner forces, conflicts, or the movement of instinctual energy
psychologyscientific study of behavior and mental processes and how they are affected by an organism's physical state, mental state, and external environment
(cognitive)social-learning theorytheory that behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes
sociocultural perspectiveapproach that emphasizes social and cultural influences on behavior
structuralismearly approach that stressed analysis of immediate experience into basic elements
trained introspectiona form of self-observation in which individuals examine and report the contents of their own consciousness
Wilhelm Wundtknown as the father of psychology; was the first person to announce psychology as a science

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