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The Challenge of Democracy

Part 1 Dilemmas of Democracy
Chapter 1 Freedom, Order, or Equility

GovernmentThe legitimate use of force--including imprisonment and execution--within specified geographic boundaries to control human behavior.
CommunismA complex theory that gives ownership of all land and productive facilities to the people--in effect, to the government.
Public GoodsBenefits and services that ar e available to everyone--such as education, sanitation, and parks. They benefit all citizens but are not likely to be produced by the voluntary acts of individuals.
Concept A generalized idea of a set of items or thoughts. It groups various events, objects, or qualities under a common dlassification or label.
Freedom ofAn absence of constraints on behavior, as in freedom of speech, or freedom of religion.
Freedom fromImmunity, as in freedom from want.
OrderThe rule of law to preserve life and protect property. Maintaining order is the oldest purpose of government.
Political ideologyA consistent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government.
TotalitatianismThe belief that government should have unlimited power.
SocialismA form of rule in which the central government plays a strong role in regulating existing private industry and directing the economy, although it does allow some private ownership of productive capacity.
Democratic socialismA socialist form of government that guarantees civil liberties such as freedom fo speech and religion. Citizens determine the extent of government activity through free elections and competitive political parties.
CapitalismThe system of government that favors free enterprise (privately owned businesses operating without government regulation.
LibertarianismA political ideology that is opposed to all government action except as necessary to protect life and property.
LibertariansThose who advocate minimal government action; those who subscribe to libertarianism.
Laissez faireAn economic doctrine that opposes any form of government intervention in business. ("let (people) do (as they please)"
LiberalsGenerally, those people whose political ideology favor a broad scope for government; those who value freedom more than order but more than equality.
AnarchismA political philosophy that opposes government in any form.
ConservativesGenerally, those people whose political ideology favors a narrow scope for government. Also, those who value freedom more than equality but would restrict freedom to preserve social order.
CommunitariansThose who adhere to a viewpoint that affirms the individual's responsibility to the community an assigns to government, as agent of the community, the role of guaranteeing equality and moral order.
Political equalityEquality in political decision making: one vote per person, with all votes counted equally.
Social equalityEquality in wealth, education, and status.
Equality of opportunityThe idea that each person is guaranteed the same chance to suceed in life.
Equality of outcomeThe concept that society mustr ensure that people are equal, and governments must design policies to redistribute wealth and status so that economic and social equality is actually achieved.
RightsThe benefits of government to which every citizen is entitled.
PolicyA choice between conflicting values.

Saundra Jones

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