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Scientific Research Flashcards

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The first step in the scientific method is __________making observations
A statement that can be tested scientifically is known as ____a hypothesis
An explanation of whether or not data collected during an experiment supports the hypothesis is known as a(n) ___.conclusion
A highly probable, well tested, comprehensive explanation, usually for a large collection of observations, is known as a ___.scientific theory
Which of the following would have been tested the most? Hypothesis, conclusion, or theorytheory (scientific theories have been tested many times by many people in many different ways)
Name the four parts of a scientific paper in the order that they appear.Introduction, Methods and Materials, Data Section, Analysis and Conclusion
When stating your hypothesis in the introduction of a scientific paper, you also have to ____explain the scientific reasons you have for making that hypothesis
In which section of a scientific research paper should you briefly summarize how you will do the experiment?In the introduction (the procedure is described in detail in the Methods and Materials section)
What are two things that are usually found in the Data Section of a scientific research paper?Data tables and graphs
In an experiment to see which type of fertilizer causes plants to grow the fastest, the growth of the plant is the __________ variable.dependent (the growth of the plant depends on the type of fertilizer)
In an experiment to see which type of fertilizer causes plants to grow the fastest, the type of fertilizer is the _____ variable.independent (the fertilizer does not depend on the growth of the plant)
In an experiment to see which type of wax allows snowboards to glide the fastest, the results would be best graphed with a _____ graphbar graph (since the type of wax would be on the x-axis and it doesn't involve a measured quantity with inbetween values, a bar graph is best)
In an experiment to see how many miles per day it is best to run when training for cross country races, the best type of graph to use would be a _____ graphline graph (since there would be different numbers of miles per day being tested, such as 2,4,6,8 and 10 miles per day, as the independent variable on the x-axis, a line graph can help you predict the inbetween values (like 1,3,5,7,9))
What should always be included in the labels of the x and y axes on a graph?The units of measurement in parentheses, for example, (cm) for centimeters
If the data you collect in a study was recorded as a percentage (for example, the percentage of people who study 2 hours per day, versus 1 hour, 1/2 an hour, 10 minutes or less, etc.) what type of graph should you use to best show the comparison of percentages?Pie graph
What should you do at the very beginning of a conclusion section?Start out by restating your purpose, question and hypothesis
What should you always include in a conclusion section to back up your claims?A discussion of specific facts and figures from your data section that supports your conclusion.
At the end of a conclusion section, what should you always discuss?Possible sources of error, ways to improve the procedures, and follow-up research that needs to be done.
The variable that is changed by the researcher before an experiment starts (such as the amount of water a plant will be receiving) is known as the ____ variable.independent
The variable that is measured during the experiment to determine the results (such as the height that a plant grows during the experiment) is known as the ______ variabledependent
In a controlled experiment there is only one ______independent variable.
For an experiment to be considered "controlled" there must be exactly _____ independent variable(s).one
If a drug company was trying to find out whether a new medicine kept you from getting sick, half of the test subjects would get the medicine and the other half would get a fake pill but not know they were getting a fake pill. This last group would be considered the _____ group.control group
In an experiment where you are trying to find out how bright indoor grow lights should be in order to cause the best plant growth, things like temperature, the amount of water, and the type of soil used are considered to be ____.controlled variables (constants)
In an experiment to test the best method for treating AIDS, 1000 people got a drug called AZT, 1000 people got AZT plus interferon, and a third group of 1000 got a sugar pill that they thought was medicine. What is the sample size in this study?1000 (remember, the sample size is the number of test subjects used in one group during one trial)
In a plant experiment, 50 plants got 10 mL of water per day, 50 plants got 20 mL per day, and 50 plants got 30 mL per day. After the experiment was finished, it was repeated once to see if similar results could be obtained. How many trials were conducted?Two (the test was run start to finish once and then it was repeated once more)
A good title for a graph that shows how different amounts of water affect the growth of plants would be ___.The effect of different amounts of water on plant growth
The calender year in this graph is written down along the ___ axis, X axis
The dependent variable in this graph is ____., the number of closings and advisories (remember, the dependent variable is always written on the y-axis)
The precipitation in this graph is written along the ____ axis, y-axis (remember that the y axis always points toward the sky)
Another word for the independent variable is ________ variable.manipulated
Another word for the manipulated variable is ________ variableindependent
Another word for the dependent variable is ________ variableresponding
Another word for the responding variable is ________ variable.dependent
Another word for the controlled variables is _________.constants
Another word for the constants is ________ variablescontrolled

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