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Understanding small and large molecules.

atomthe smallest particle of an element that has the properties of the element
atomic numberthe number of protons of an element
elementa substance that cannot be broken down by chemical process into simpler substances
protonsubatomic particle with low mass and a positive (+) charge
mass numberthe number of protons plus neutrons in an element
electronsubatomic particle with negligible mass and a negative (-) charge
radioistopean isotope in the the nucleus is highly unstable and breaks apart, giving off energy
neutronsubatomic particle that has mass and is neutral
half-lifethe amount of time it takes for half the atoms in a given sample to undergo radioacative decay
chemical reactiona reaction in which chemical bonds are made and broken
atomic weightthe total mass of an atom
amuthat mass of one proton or 1 Dalton
covalent bonda chemical bond formed when atoms share electrons
ionic bonda chemical bond where electrons are donated/received
double bonda covalent bond where two pairs of electrons are shared between atoms
ionsa charged atom
cationsa positively charged atom
aniona negatively charged atom
compoundtwo or more different elements bound together in definite proportions
basea compound that releases hydroxide ions or receives hygrogen ions
acida compound that releases hydrogen ions
bio-living things
-ologyth study of
organic compoundcarbond containing compound
polymerhundreds to thousands of monomers
carbohydratemacromolecules made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in a 1:2:1 ratio
monosaccharidesimplest carbohydrate (monomer)
lipidnonpolar macromolecule made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen
hormonechemical messengers that send signals from one body part to another (lipids)
proteinmacromolecule made up of amino acids
amino acidprotein monomer
peptide bondcarboxyl group of one amino acid reacts with the amino group of another amino acid
enzymeproteins that speed up specific reactions
catalystspeed up
substratemolecules that specific enzymes bind to and modify
active sitesurface where substrate interacts
nucleic acidlarge molecules that make DNA and RNA
nucleotidenucleic acid monomerschm
monomersmall organic molecules

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