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Section 12.4: Mutations

Use NON-JAVA for best viewing. This set of flashcards also contain some materials from section 14.1 and 14.2

AB
A mutation that involves one or a few nucleotides is called a(n) ____.point mutation
Another word for a point mutation is a ____ mutation.gene
What are the three types of point mutations?substitution, insertions and deletions
Which types of point mutations cause frameshift mutations?insertions and deletions
A type of point mutation that causes a change in every amino acid following the mutation is called a(n) ____ mutation.frameshift
A point mutation will cause the cell to make an incomplete protein if the mutation results in an early ____ codon.stop
A picture of all 46 chromosomes paired in homologous pairs is called a(n) _____.karyotype,
The karyotype of a person with Down syndrome would show ___.three chromosomes at the 21st pair.,
The failure of chromosomes to separate properly during meiosis is called ___ and can lead to conditions such as ____.nondisjunction, Down syndrome,
Nondisjunction is the failure of chromosomes to separate properly during ____ and can lead to a person being born with an extra ____.meiosis, chromosome,
Four types of chromosomal mutations are ___.Deletions, duplications, inversions, and translocations
The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal deletion,
The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal duplication,
The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal inversion,
The type of mutation shown below is a(n) _____., chromosomal translocation,
A picture like the one below is called a(n) ____., karyotype,
What would be the sex of the person who owns these chromosomes?, male (notice the X and the Y chromosome at the last pair),
What type of genetic disorder does the owner of these chromosomes have?, Down syndrome (notice the extra chromosome at the 21st pair),
What do you call a point mutation that changes a nucleotide in a codon, but doesn't change the resulting amino acid?Silent mutation (Silent mutations are almost always caused by a base-pair substitution that causes the 3rd nucleotide in a codon to change. As you can see in the genetic code chart below, changing the third base often times does not change the amino acid that is called for.),
What do you call a point mutation that ends up causing a stop codon to be read earlier than normal so that the resulting protein is smaller than it should be?Nonsense mutation (because the protein will be non-functional and its structure will make no sense)


Biology and Forensic Science

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