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Reproduction and Embryonic Development

Learn and review the terminology presented in this section

infertilityinabilty to bear children after a year of attmepts
asexual reproductioncreation of genetically identical offspring by a lone parent
fertilizationfusion of sperm and egg ofspring genetic combination of two parents
buddingnew individuals split off from existing individuals
fissionseparation of a parent into two equal sized offspring
fragmentationbreaking parent body into several piece that become complete new individuals
regenerationregrowth of a lost body part
sexual reproductioncreation of offspring by fusion of two haploid sex cells
gameteshaploid (n) sex cells
zygotediploid (2n) cell forme by fusion of gametes
spermmale gamete
eggfemale gamete
haploid (n) chromosome numberhalf set of chromosomes, number in gametes of a species (23 in humans)
diploid (2n) chromosome numberwhole set of chromosomes, number in body cells of species (46 in humans)
hermaphroditismeach individual of a species has both male and female reproductive systems
external fertilizationgametes release into water where fertilization occurs
internal fertilizationmale gametes are deposited into female tract where fertilization occurs
copulationprocess that facilitates the deposition of male gametes into female system
ovarian folliclescell groups that will form an egg/ovum
ovulationrelease of an egg from the female ovary
corpus luteumsolid mass left immediately after ovulation
oviduct (fallopian tube)passageway egg takes to uterus
uterussite of embryo implantation
endometriumthick vascular mucus lining of the uterus
embryostage from first division of zygote until the appearance of body structures
fetusembryo from nith week of gestation until birth
ectopic pregnancyimplantation of embryo outside of the uterus
cervixthick muscular neck between uterus and vagina
vaginathin walled muscular chamber that recieves male penis a.k.a. birth canal
labia minoraslender inner skin folds immediately around vaginal opening
labia majorathick fatty outer folds around vaginal opening
clitorissmall erectile tissue that engorges with blood during sexual activity
clitoral glanstip or head of erectile tissue
clitoral prepuceprotective hood/fold of
testesmale gonads
scrotumskin sac outside of abdomen to house testes at lower temperature
epididymissperm storage area within scrotum
ejaculationexpulsion of sperm containing fluid from penis
vas deferenssperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct
ejaculatory ductcommon duct formed by union of vas defeens from right and left
prostate glandgland below bladder that produces carbohydrate portion of semen
bulbourethral glandsecrete alkaline portion of semen to neutralize acids in sperm ducts
semennutritive fluid that contains sperm
orgasmseries of rhythmic involutary contractions of reproductive structures to discharge semen
peniserectile intro mitten organ deposites sperm in female tract
circumcisionsurgical removal of prepuce
glans penisnerve ending rich tip of penis
prepuceskin fold covering and protectin glans penis
gametogenesismeiotic cell division to form gametes
spermatogenesismeiotic cell division to form male gametes (sperm)
spermiogenesislast proceess of spermatogenesis where sperm cell changes form
seminiferous tubulescoiled tubes of testes in which sperm are formed
spermatogoniadiploid stem cell that will undergo meiosis to form sperm
primary spermatocytespresumptive sperm cell in prophase I of meiosis
secondary spermatocytespresumptive sperm cell at the end of telophase I of meiosis
spermatidspresumpive sperm cell at the end of telophase II of meiosis
spermatozoamatured differentiated male gamete
oogenesismeiotic cell division to form egg cells (ova)
oogoniadiploid gametic stem cell that undergoes meiosis to form egg cells
primary oocytepresumptive ovum in prophase I of meiosis
secondary oocytepresumptive ovum in metaphae II of meiosis
ovummature haploid femal gamete
mature follicleswecondary oocyte and associated follicle cells in ovarian tissue
coronaring of follicle cells immediately around oocyte
antrumliquid filled space in mature follicle
liquor folliculifliud in antrum that eventually forces oocyte out of ovary
follicle cellscells thar nourish oocyte and produce female hormones
corpus luteumfollicle cells fill the space left by release of oocyte, produces progesterone
corpus albicansscar tissue from a released ovarian follicle
ovarian cycleseries of changes that occur monthly in the ovary
menstrual cycleseries of changes that occur monthly in the uterus
menstruationmonthly loss of uterine lining when pregnancy does not accur
follicle stageDay 5- 14 in female reproductive cycle where follicle mature/uterine lining builds up
ovulationDay 14 of reproductive cycle when egg is releases
luteal phaseday 15-28 development/maintenance of uterine lining
flow phaseDay 1-5 of reproductive cylce loss of uterine lining
FSHfollicle stimulating hormone stimulates follicle development
LHleuteinizing hormone promotes ovulation/growth of uterine lining
estrogenovarian hormone promote uterine lining development
progesteroneovarian hormone maintains utering lining thru pregnancy
human choriogonadotropin (HCG)placental hormone mantains corpus luteum
sexually transmitted diseases (STD)contagious diseases transmitted by sexual contact
chlamydiabacterial disease shows no symptoms in femals can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
gonorrheabacterial disease with genital discharge painful urination
syphilisbacterial disease genital ulcers, neurological dysfunction in later stages
genital herpesviral infection genital blisters painful urination linked to cervical cancer/birth defects
genital wartsviral disease forms painless growths on genitalia
AIDSviral disease autoimmune deficiency syndrome
trichomoniasisprotozoan disease vaginal itching/discharge no symptoms in male
candidiasisfungal disease a.k.a. yeast infection vaginal itch/discharge
contraceptiondeliberate prevention of pregnancy
tubal ligationremavel of section of oviduct ends sealed prevent egg reaching uterus
vasectomysection of vas deferens removed and sealed prevent sperm from leaving male body
rhythm methodtemorary abstinence refraining from intercourse during female fertile period
spermicidessperm killing foams/jellies placed in vagina prior to intercourse
oral contraceptivessynthetic estrogen/progesteron prevents development/release of mature egg
morning after pills (MAPs)taken after unproteted sex within 24 hours 75% effective in preventing pregnancy
sperm cell headpart of mature sperm cell contains acrosome and nucleus
acrosomevesicle of hydrolytic enxymes in head of sperm
nucleuscontains haploid number of chromosome in sperm head
sperm cell midpiecepowerhouse of sperm provides energy for motility
spiral mitochondriaproduce energy for sperm motility
sperm flagellamotile portion of sperm
jelly coatprotective layer around ovum broken through by acrosomal enzymes
vitelline layervesicles beneath egg membrane will release fluid to form fertilization membrane
receptor proteinsmembrane markers that "grab"sperm head of proper species
fertilization membraneprotective barrier produced to prevent multiple sperm from entering egg
cleavagesynchronized cell division of zygote
morulasolid ball of cells formed by cleavage
blastulahollow ball of cells formed by cleavage
blastocoelfluid filled cavity of blastula stage
blastomerescells that form the blastula
gastrulationcell movement into blastocoel begins tissue differentiation
gastrulathree tissue layer stage of embryo development
blastoporeopening through which cells enter cavity of blasula
ectodermouter layer of cells forms skin and nervous system
endoderminner layer of cells forms digestive system
mesodermmiddle layer of cells forms skeletal, muscular, circulatory, reproductive, excretory systems
notochordsolid rod of tissue of embryo dorsal side stimulates nervous system differentiation
organogenesisdevlopment of specialized organs in the embryo
neurulationprocess by which ectoderma tissue develops into the brain and nervous system
neural platethickened ectoderm forms above the notochord
neural foldraised edge of neural plate
neural tubeneural plate folds meet to form tube
coelomhollow space in animal's body
somitesseries of mesodermal tissue will form muscles and bones
inductionmechanism where a group of cells presence influences the development of neighboring cells
apoptosisprogrammed cell death in human development removes skin between finger/toes
pattern formationemergence of body with tissues and organs in proper places
homeotic genesclass of similar genes animals that program the placement of organs
homeoboxesnucleotide sequnces forming specific proteins to activate/deactivate homeotic genes
gestationperiod of embryo's internal development in mammals
conceptionfertiliztion of egg by sperm in human reproduction
blastocystshollow sphere of cell in human embryonic development
trophoblastouter protective cell layer that will implant in uterine wall
placentaprotective/nutrient providing tissue formed by maternal/embryonic tissue
extraembryonic membranesprotective/functional membranes formed from nonplacental trophblasts
amnionfliud filled protective membrane surrounding embryo
yolk sacembryonic membrane surrounding food supply in nonmammals
allantoisembryonic membrane storing nitrogen waste in nonmammals
chorionembryonic membrane allows gas exchange
chorionic villifingers of chorion that grow into uterine lining to form embryonic portion of placenta
first trimesterconception to week 12, limbs, "tail", gill pouches present
second trimesterweek 12 to 24 fetus enlarges fingers, nails, eyebrows/lashes formed
third trimesterwek 24 to birth systemic changes begin and are completed to ready systems gor gas exchange with air
laborrhythmic contractions of uterus to expel embryo
positive feedbackchanges amplify change in dame direction
impotenceinfertility caused male's inability to have penis become engorge with blood
assisted reproductive technologies (ART)procedures used to increase likelihood of successful conception
in vitro fertilization (IVF)eggs and sperm placed in lab vessel to increase possibility of conception

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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