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photosynthesistransforms light energy to chemical energy stored in the bonds of sugar made from CO2 and water
autotrophsmake their own food; sustain themselves without concuming organic molecules
producersorganisms that form organic molcules used by other organs to sustain themselves
photoautotrophsorganisms capable of producing organic molecules from inorganic ones using light energy
chloroplastcell organelle that carries out photosynthesis
chlorophylllight absorbing pigment of the chloroplast
mesophyllgreen tissue in center of a leaf with highes concentration of chloroplasts
stomatapores in leaf for exchange of gases
stromafluid that surrounds the thylakoids
thylakoidshighly folded inner membrane of chloroplast
granaconcentrated stacks of thylkoids
photolysisprocess of light reactions that splits water to generate hydrogen ions and free oxygen
light reactionsportion of photosynthesis that converts light energy into chemical enegy forming NADPH and ATP
Calvin cyclestromal reactions that reduces carbon dioxide to form glucose using h ions and ATP from light reactions
NADPHhydrogen/electron carrier that connects
ATPenergy carrying molecule
electromagnetic spectrumwave energy of different wavelengths
wavelengthdistance between two crests of adjacent waves
photonfixed quantity of light energy
photosystemlight harvesting pigments and enzymes suroundin reaction center complex
reaction center complexchlorophyll a molecule that channels all the energy absorbed by surrounding pigments
photosystem IIcontains P680 reaction center photolysis produces H ions needed for chemiosmosis
P680reaction center of photosystem II
photosystem Icontains P700 reaction center transfers H ions to NADPH hydrogen carrier
P700reaction center of photosystem I
chemiosmosisprocess using a concentration gradient to form ATP
photophosphorylationusing light energy to phosphorylate ADP forming ATP
carbon fixationaddition of CO2 to existing sugar to form 12 molecules glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P)
ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP)existing sugar used to fix carbon dioxide
rubiscoenzyme that catalyzes carbon fixation reaction
reductionATP and NADPH from light reactions add hydrogen/electrons to carbon skeleton of G3P
hexose shunt2 molecules of G3P are combine to form glucose
RuBP regeneration10 molecules of G3P are rearranged to form RuBP
C3 plantscarbon fixation forms 3 carbon precursor PGAL
photorespirationhot conditions stomata close and rubisco adds oxygen not CO2
C4 plantscarbon fixation forms a 4C precursor allowing sugar formation with closed stomates
Cam plantsconserves water by opening stomates during night
greenhouse effectatmospheric CO2 prevents release of radiant energy from Earth's surface
global warmingslow steady rise of Earht's surface temperatures due to greenhouse effect

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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