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Unit 4 Vocabulary Africa

escarpmentsteep, jagged cliffs
rift valleya large break in the Earth's surface formed by shifting tectonic plates
gorgesteep sided valley formed when rivers cut through the land
industrial diamondused to make drills, saws, and grinding tools
plateaularge, raised area of mostly level land
tributarya small river or stream that flows into a larger body of water
droughtperiods of time when there is no rain at all
rain forestdense stand of trees and other plants that receive high amounts of precipitation each year
canopythe tops of the highest trees that form an umbrella-like covering in a rain forest
deforestationthe widespread clearing of forestland
ecotourismtouring a place without causing harm to the environment
savannagrasslands with scattered woods
desertificationthe expansion of the desert into the surrounding area
succulentplant such as cacti with thick, fleshy leaves that conserve moisture
irrigationartificially watering crops
hunter-gathererpeople who moved from place to place to hunt and gather food
plantationlarge farms
nationalismpeople's desire to rule themselves and have their own independent country
discriminationunfair and unequal treatment of a group
refugeepeople who flee to another country to escape mistreatment or disaster
apartheidthe separation of Black South Africans and White South Africans
malnutritionpoor health due to not eating the right foods or enough food
sanitationremoval of waste products
life expectancythe average number of years a group of people can expect to live
social statusposition in the community
rite of passagespecial cerimonies that mark particular stages of life
griotWest African storytellers
compounda group of houses surrounded by walls
extended familyhouseholds made up of several generations
nuclear familyincludes a husband, wife, and their children
clana large group of people who are united by a common ancestor in the far past
lineagea larger family group with close blood ties
ethnic groupa group of people who share the same ancestry, language, religion, or cultural tradition
nomada person who moves from place to place to make a living
subsistance farmsmall plots where farmers grow only enough food to feed their families
cacaoa tropical tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate and cocoa
landlockedcountries that do not have a sea or an ocean border
overgrazewhen animals strip areas of land so bare that winds can blow away the soil
sisala plant fiber used to make rope and twine
habitatthe type of environment in which a particular animal species lives
cassavaa plant whose roots are ground to make porridge
genocidethe removal or annihilation of a group of people
constitutiona document describing a government's structure and powers as well as the rights of citizens
suffragethe right to vote
migrant workerspend most of their time working in mines or factories away from home
enclavesmall territories located inside a larger country

Owner H.I.T.
Johnson Junior High
Cheyenne, WY

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