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Chapter 2 Earthquakes: Games

faulta break in Earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
compressionthe stress force that squeezes rock until if folds or breaks
earthquakethe shaking and trembling caused by movement of rock beneath the Earth's surface
stressa force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
deformationany change in teh volumne or shape of the Earth's crust
tensiona stress force that pulls on the crust, stretching rock so it becomes thinner in the middle
normal faultone block of rock, the hanging wall, lies above the fauly, while the other block, the footwall, lies below the fault
fault-block mountaina mountain fomred when normal faults uplift
shearingstress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions
strike-slip faultthe rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways
foldsbends in rocks that form when compression shortens and thickens part of Earth's crust
reverse faultshas the same structure as a normal fault, but the blocks move in the opposite direction
transform boundarya plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
plateaua large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
frictionthe force that opposes the motion of one surface as it moves across another surface
seismic wavesvibrations that travel through Earth carrying the energy released during an earthquake
the focusthe point beneath the Earth's surface where rock that is under stress breaks, triggering an earthquake
P wavesprimary waves-the first waves to to arrive
S wavessecondary waves-they arrive after P waves
surface wavesP waves and S waves that reach the surface and produce the most severe ground movements
magnitudea measurement of earthquake strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
Mercalli Scalea scale that rates earthquakes according to their intensity-the strength of ground motion in a certain place
Richter Scalea scale rating the size of the seismic waves as measured by a mechanical seismograph
Moment Magnitude Scalea rating system that estimates the total energy released by an earthquake
epicenterthe point on the Earth directly above the focus
liquefactionwhen an earthquake's violent shaking suddenly turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud
aftershockan earthquake that occurs after a larger earthquake in the same area
tsunamia large ocean wave that is triggered when an earthquake jolts the ocean floor, displacing a large amount of water
base-isolated buildinga building designed to reduce the amount of energy that reaches a building during an earthquake
creep metera fault monitoring device that uses a wire stretched across a fault to measure horizontal movement of the ground
laser-ranging devicea device which uses a laser beam to detect even tiny fault movements
tiltmetera device that measure tilting of the ground
satellite montorssatellites equipped with rader to make images of faults

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