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Ch 9, Cardiovascular and lymphatic disorders

aneurysmA localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, caused by weakness of the vessel wall. May eventually burst.
angina pectorisA feeling of constriction around the heart or pain that may radiate to the left arm or shoulder, usually brought on by exertion; caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart.
arrhythmiaAny abnormality in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat.
cerebrovascular accident, strokeSudden damage to the brain resulting from reduction of blood flow. Causes include atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis, or hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm; commonly called stroke.
clubbingEnlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes due to growth of the soft tissue around the nails. Seen in a variety of diseases in which there is poor peripheral circulation.
cyanosisBluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen
dissecting aneurysmAn aneurysm in which blood enters the arterial wall and separates the layers. Usually involves the aorta.
edemaSwelling of body tissues due to the presence of excess fluid. Causes include cardiovascular disturbances, kidney failure, inflammation, and malnutrition.
embolismObstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or other matter carried in the circulation.
embolusA mass carried in the circulation. Usually a blood clot, but may also be air, fat, bacteria, or other solid matter from within or from outside the body.
dyspneaDifficult or labored breathing.
fibrillationSpontaneous, quivering, and ineffectual contraction of muscle fibers, as in the atria or the ventricles.
heart blockAn interference in the conduction system of the heart resulting in arrhythmia. The conditon is classified in order of increasing severity as first, second or third degree heart block. Block in a bundle branch is designated as a left or right bundle branch block (BBB).
heart failureA condition caused by the inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood.
hypertensionA condition of higher than normal blood pressure. Essential (primary, idiopathic) hypertension has no known cause.
infarctionLocalized necrosis of tissue resulting from a blockage or narrowing of the artery that supplies the area. A myocardial infarction occurs in cardiac muscle and usually results from formation of a thrombus in a coronary artery.
ischemiaLocal deficiency of blood supply due to obstruction of the circulation.
murmurAn abnormal heart sound. A functional murmur is generated by normal heart function and does not indicate a defect.
occlusionA closing off or obstruction, as of a vessel.
phlebitisInflammation of a vein.
rheumatic heart diseaseDamage to heart valves following infection with a type of streptococcus. The antibodies produced in response to the infection produce scarring of the valves, usually the mitral valve.
shockCirculatory failure resulting in inadequate supply of blood to the heart. Cardiogenic shock is due to heart failure; hypovolemic shock is due to a loss of blood volume; septic shock is due to bacterial infection.
stenosisConstriction or narrowing of an opening
syncopeA temporary loss of consciousness due to inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting.
thrombosis, thrombusDevelopment of a blood clot within a vessel.
varicose veinA twisted and swollen vein resulting from breakdown of the valves, pooling of blood, and chronic dilatation of the vessel; also called varix or varicosity.
Hodgkin's diseaseA malignant disease causing progressive enlargement of lymphoid tissue
lymphomaAny neoplastic disease of lymphoid tissue
lymphadenitisInflammation and enlargement of lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection.
lymphadenopathyAny disease of the lymph nodes; often used to mean enlarged lymph nodes.
lymphangiitisInflammation of lymphatic vessels as a result of bacterial infection. Appears as painful red streaks under the skin.
lymphedemaSwelling of tissues with lymph due to obstruction or excision of lymphatic vessels.
bradycardiaA slow heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute.
bruitAn abnormal sound heard in auscultation.
cardiac tamponadePathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac. May result from pericarditis or injury to the heart or great vessels.
coarctation of the aortaLocalized narrowing of the aorta.
extrasystolePremature contraction of the heart.
flutterA very rapid (200-300 per minute) but regular contractions, as in the atria or the ventricles.
hypotensionA conditon of lower than normal blood pressure.
intermittent claudicationPain in a muscle during exercise due to inadequate blood supply. The pain disappears with rest.
mitral valve prolapseMovement of the cusps of the mitral valve into the left atrium when the ventricles contract.
occlusive vascular diseaseArteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, usually peripheral vessels.
palpitationA sensation of abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat.
pitting edemaEdema that retains the impression of a finger pressed firmly into the skin
polyarteritis nodosaPotentially fatal collagen disease causing inflammation of small visceral arteries. Symptoms depend on the organ affected.
Raynaud's diseaseA disorder characterized by abnormal constricton of peripheral vessesl in the arms and legs on exposure to cold.
regurgitationA backward flow, such as the backflow of blood through a defective valve.
subacute bacterial endocarditisGrowth of bacteria in a heart or valves previously damaged by rheumatic fever
tachycardiaAn abnormally rapid heart rate, usually over 100 beats per minute.
tetralogy of FallotA combination of four congenital heart abnormalities: pulmonary artery stenosis, interventricular septal defect, displacement of the aorta to the right, right ventricular hypertrophy.
thromboangiitis obliteransThrombotic occlusion of leg vessels in young men leading to gangrene of the feet. Patients show a hypersensitivity to tobacco. Also called Buerger's disease.
vegetationIrregular outgrowths of bacteria on the heart valves; associated with rheumatic fever.
Wolff-Parkinson-White syndromeA cardiac arrhythmia consisting of tachycardia and a premature ventricular beat caused by an alternate conduction pathway.

Jeani Keogh

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