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Human Geography Terms #2

These activities are directly from the Human Geography Textbook! Review These!

Demographic Transition ModelSequence of demographic changes in which a country moves through 4 or 5 stages from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates through time.
AcculturationAdooption of cultural traits, such as language, by one group under the influence of another.
AnimismTraditional religion most prevalent in Africa and Americas, doctrine in which the world is seen as infused with spiritual and even supernatural powers.
ArtifactAny item that represents a material aspect of culture.
CreoleA pidgin language that evolves to point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.
Cultural complexGroup of traits that define a particular culture.
Cultural hearthLocation on earth's surface where specific cultures first arose.
DialectGeographically distinct versions of single language that vary somewhat from parent form.
EcumeneProportion of earth able to be inhabited by humans.
Environmental determinismDoctrine that claims that cultural traits are formed and controlled by environmental conditions.
Ethnic cleansingSystematic attempt to remove all people of particular ethnicity from country or region either by forced migration or genocide.
Ethnic ReligionReligion identified with particular ethnic or tribal group that does not seek converts.
Folk CultureRefers to constellation of cultural practices that form the sights, smells, sounds, and rituals of everyday existence in the traditional socieities in which they developed. They don't easily change.
GhettoSegregated ethnic area within a city - usually caused by force.
Indo-European familyLanguage family including the Germanic and Romance languages that is spoken by about 50% of world's people.
Lingua FrancaExgtremely simple language that combines aspects of two or more other, more complex languages usually used for quick and efficient communication.
PidginLanguage that may develop when two groups of people with different languages meet. The pidgin has some characteristics of each language. Not official or prima rylanguage.
Sino-Tibetan familyLanguage family that spreads through most of Southeast Asia and China and comprised of Chinese, Burmese, Tibetan, Japanese, and Korean.
SyncretismTraditions that borrow from both past and present and different cultures together.
ToponymPlace names given to certain features on land such as settlements, terrain features, and streams
Universalizing RelgionSeeks to unit people from all over the globe in order to convert as many people as possible to the relgion.
Antecedent BoundaryBoundary line established before an area populated.
Subsequent BoundaryBoundary line established after an area has been settled that considers social and cultural characteristics of the area.
Centrifugal ForcesForces that tend to divide a country.
Centripetal ForcesForces that tend to unite or bind a country together.
Commonwealth of Independent StatesConfederacy of independent states of the former Soviet Union that have united because of their common economic and administrative needs.
Compact StateState that possesses roughly circular, oval, or rectangular territory in which the distance from geometric center is relatively equal in all directions.
Domino theoryIdea that political destabilization in one country can lead to collapse of political stability in neighboring countries, starting chain reaction of collapse.
Elongated stateState whose territory is long and narrow in shape.
European UnionInternational organization comprised of Western European countries to promote free trade among members. Its a regional multinational organization and also a supranationalist organization with a common currency.
ExclaveBounded territory that is part of a particular state but separated form it by the territory of a different state.
Fragmented StateState that is not contiguous whole but rather separated parts. Made of islands, perhaps.
Geometric BoundaryPolitical boundaries that are defined and delimited by straight lines, often defined by latitude/longitude lines.
GerrymanderingDesignation of voting districts so as to favor a particular party or candidate. A type of reapportionment.
Heartland TheoryProposed by Halford Mackinder that held that any political power based in the heartland of Eurasia could gain enough strength to eventually dominate the world.
Law of the SeaLaw though United Nations agreement establishing states' rights and responsibilities concerning the ownership and use of the earth's seas and oceans and their resources.
Nation-stateCountry whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity.
North/south divideEconomic division between the wealthy ocuntries of Europe and North America, Japan, and Australia and the generally poorer countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America - Core-Periphery Theory
Organic TheoryView that states resemble biological organisms with life cycles that include stages of youth, maturity, and old age.
Perforated stateState whose territory completely surrounds that of another state.
Prorupted stateState that exhibits a narrow, elongated land extension leading away form main territory.
ReapportionmentProcess of a reallocation of electoral seats to defined territories.
Rimland TheoryNicholas Spykman's theory that the domination of the coastal fringes of Eurasia would provide the base for world conquest. The world's shores are most important.
Super-imposed BoundaryBoundary line drawn in an area ignoring the existing cultural pattern.
Supranational OrganizationsOrganization of three or more states to promote shared objectives. These could be global or regional.
AgglomerationGrouping together of many firms form the same industry in a single area for collective or cooperative use of infrastructure and sharing of labor resources.
Ancillary activitiesEconomic activities that surround and support large-scale industries such as shipping and food service.
Backwash effectNegative effects on one region that result from economic growth within another region.
Brick and mortar businessTraditional business with actual stores in which trade or retail occurs; it does not exist only on the Internet.l
Conglomerate CorporationFirm comprised of many smaller firms that serve several different functions.

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