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Section 6.4 - Charting a Course for the Future

Gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet light have _____ wavelengths of energy than visible light and have ____ energies compared to visible light.shorter, higher,
Radiowaves, microwaves, and infrared have _____ wavelengths of energy than visible light and have ____ energies compared to visible lightlonger, lower
When energy of a certain wavelength strikes a substance (like the gases in our atmosphere, a leaf on a tree, or the glass in our windows) it can do one of three things. It can be ____, _____, or ______.absorbed, transmitted, reflected
Energy that strikes an object and bounces back is said to be ______.reflected
Energy that strikes an object and passes right through the object (like visible light going through glass) is said to be ______.transmitted
Energy that strikes an object and causes the object to gain energy (by causing its electrons to move further from the nucleus) is said to be ______.absorbed
The higher energy wavelengths of energy that reach the earth are absorbed by the ground (and water), causing the Earth to heat up. The Earth tries to cool down by radiating energy back into space, usually in the form of longer wavelength ________ rays that can be blocked from escaping by greenhouse gases.infrared,
The Earth must ____ or ____ about the same amount of energy coming in from the sun back out into space, or else the Earth will gain more and more energy, causing it to heat up.radiate, reflect,
Greenhouse gases are gases that transmit energy coming from the ____ but absorb energy coming from the ____.sun, ground
The greenhouse effect is what keeps our planet _______________.warm enough for life to exist
_________ refers to the increase in average temperature of the Earth's biosphere.Global warming
Name at least 2 different types of evidence that global warming is happening.Temperature records, shrinking ice caps and glaciers, rising sea levels
The extra energy in the atmosphere due to the warming of Earth's climate may be leading to stronger ______.storms
Besides temperature, what else has been rising due to global warming?sea levels (due to melting ice caps and glaciers)
Which gas gets the majority of the blame for global warming?carbon dioxide (Even though water vapor is in higher concentrations on average than CO2, and produces most of the greenhouse effect humans have not been directly adding any additional water vapor to the air. Methane is a stronger greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide, but is in a much lower concentration in the air than CO2)
Which gas is the second leading culprit for causing global warming, and is an even stronger greenhouse gas than the one that gets most of the blame for global warming?Methane (Methane is even more efficient at trapping heat than CO2, but there's much less of it, so it doesn't get as much of the blame)
There is a lot of ____ trapped in arctic permafrost. As global temperatures rise, more and more permafrost melts, releasing this greenhouse gas into the atmosphere. The system just described is an example of a _____ feedback system.methane, positive (It's an example of a positive feedback because it accelerates global warming. The warming causes permafrost to melt, releasing more methane, which traps more heat, which causes more permafrost melting, which releases more methane, which traps more heat, etc....)
Which animal receives a lot of blame for increases in atmospheric methane levels?Cows (They release a lot of methane when they release gas from their posterior area, just below their tails. This release of gas is politely known as flatulence.)
The main cause of the increasing levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is the ______.burning of fossil fuels
A growing tree can help lower the amount of _______ in the atmosphere because it is a gas that is required (along with water), for photosynthesis to occur. Photosynthesis converts the carbon atoms in this gas into the organic molecules that make up the growing tree.carbon dioxide
Which human activity is the second leading cause of the increase in carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere?Deforestation (Cutting down forests prevents trees from doing photosynthesis, leading to less CO2 being taken out of the atmosphere. Often times, the forests are burned to clear them quickly so the land can be farmed. Burning the trees releases the carbon stored in the trees directly back into the atmosphere as CO2)
If global warming caused the average amount of cloud cover on this planet to increase, that would be an example of a _____ feedback because clouds are good at reflecting energy from the sun back out into space, and would help slow down global warming.negative (A negative feedback happens when anything that is caused by the increase in something works to slow down the increase in that original cause)
____ feedbacks cause a trend to slow down or reverse themselves.Negative
____ feedbacks cause a trend to speed up.Positive (An example of a positive feedback with global warming is melting of snow and ice. Global warming causes there to be less snow and ice covering the planet. With less snow and ice to reflect the suns energy back out into space, the earth warms up more and causes even more snow and ice to melt. Both trends are sped up)
____ feedbacks work to achieve homeostasis in a system.Negative (because they help to bring a system back to a normal level. For example, sweating is an example of a negative feedback because it is caused by being overheated, but then it helps the body cool down and get back to its normal temperature)
The amount of carbon dioxide that you are responsible for putting into the air by directly burning fossil fuels for things like heating and transportation is known as your ______.primary carbon footprint
Ozone (O3) is a gas that is good at absorbing ________ radiation coming in from the sun.UV (which stands for ultraviolet)
UV radiation that reaches the Earth can cause cancer
TRUE or FALSE: We need more ozone in our lower atmosphere.FALSE (Ozone in the lower atmosphere causes lung irritation and damage to our lung tissues. Pollution interacting with sunlight near the ground causes ground-level ozone to form)
TRUE or FALSE: We need more ozone in our upper atmosphere.TRUE (Ozone in the upper atmosphere absorbs UV radiation along with X-rays and gamma rays coming from the sun. These higher energy wavelength of electromagnetic radiation can cause cancer. A type of pollutant called CFC's has caused the ozone levels in the upper atmosphere to decrease.)
TRUE or FALSE: Ozone gas is one of the main greenhouse gases responsible for global warming.FALSE (Ozone does not absorb the longer lower energy wavelength infrared radiation that is being radiated out toward space from the ground. It has very little effect on global temperatures.
Ozone prevents UV radiation from ______ the Earth.reaching
What type of gas breaks down ozone when it bumps into ozone?CFC (Chlorinated fluorocarbons act as a catalyst. When ozone bumps into this molecule, it breaks down into regular oxygen gas (O2) which isn't as good at absorbing high energy radiation from the sun as ozone is. Since CFC's act as a catalyst, they don't break down themselves but remain in the upper atmosphere for a very long time, continually breaking down ozone)
TRUE or FALSE: The ozone hole in our atmosphere is getting worse.FALSE (Since the use of CFC's has been banned in just about every country in the world, their concentration in the upper atmosphere has started to drop and it looks like ozone levels are starting to rise again.)
CFC's are a type of gas that used to be used in refrigerators and aerosol cans. Which gas do they destroy when they come into contact with it?ozone

Truman High School

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