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Science 9: Basic Chemistry (Ions, solutions, phases of matter, reaction speed) - REVIEW ASSIGNMENT

AB
Atoms or molecules that become charged because they gain or lose electrons are called ___.ions
A negatively charged ion would be ____ by another negatively charged ion.repelled
A positively charged ion would be ____ by another positively charged ion.repelled
A negatively charged ion would be ___ by a positively charged ion.attracted
A uniform mixture of substances is know as a ___.solution
In a glass of salt water, the ___ would be the solvent.water
In a glass of salt water, the ___ would be the solute.salt
In a solution of sugar and water, the sugar would be the ___.solute
In a solution of sugar and water, the water would be the _____.solvent
As temperature ____, particles move faster and fasterincreases
As temperature ____ particles move slower and slower.decreases
Increasing the ___ or ___ of the reactants will cause a reaction to speed up.temperature, concentration
A(n) ______ is any substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without being changed by the reaction.catalyst, Audio
A biological catalyst is known as a(n) ____., Audio enzyme, Audio
Atoms gain or lose electrons to become ____ in order to obtain a ____.ions, full outer shell of electrons (After the first shell which is full with 2 electrons, the rest of the shells are full if they have 8 electrons)
If an atom gains electrons to fill its outer shell, it will become a ___ charged ion.negatively (Remember, atoms are neutrally charged with an equal number of protons and electrons. If they gain more electrons, they will have more negatively charged electrons than positively charged protons, which is why they become negatively charged ions)
If an atom loses electrons to get rid of its outer shell electrons so that the shell that is one level closer becomes its new outer shell and is already full, it will become a ___ charged ion.positively (Remember, atoms are neutrally charged with the same number of positively charged protons as negatively charged electrons. If they lose negatively charged electrons, they will now have more positively charged protons than negatively charged electrons, which means that they will have an overall positive charge)
Sugar dissolved in water makes up a(n) ________.sugar solution
What are the three main phases of matter?Solid, liquid, and gas
The phase of matter that has neither a definite volume or shape is the ____ phase.gas
The phase of matter that has a definite volume but will change shape to conform to the shape of the container it is in is called the ____ phase.liquid
The phase of matter that has definite volume and a fixed shape is called the _____ phase.solid
The phase of matter that any substance is in depends on the ____ of the substance.temperature (For instance, pure water is in the solid phase at or below zero Celsius, is a gas at or above 100 Celsius, and is a liquid at any temperature in-between 0 and 100 Celsius. Each type of matter has its own unique freezing and boiling temperatures)
Chemical reactions occur when the reactants ______ at a high enough speed to ___ old bonds so that new bonds can form.collide, break (When we blew up the soda bottle, the molecules weren't moving fast enough to collide hard enough to break the bonds between the two oxygen atoms in the oxygen molecule and the two hydrogen atoms in the hydrogen molecule until i warmed the gases up with a lighter. Then they broke apart and rearranged into water, producing much more energy than was needed to get the reaction started. This demo as a classic example of an exothermic reaction. And it was loud and scary!!)
True or false: All catalysts are also enzymes.False (All enzymes are catalysts, because they speed up chemical reactions without being changed themselves, but not all catalysts are enzymes. Enzymes are a special type of catalyst made out of organic molecules inside cells. Enzymes are a type of catalyst, just like a Ferrari is a type of car. All Ferraris are cars, but unfortunately, not all cars are Ferraris.)
If an atom gains electrons to get a full outer shell, it will become a ____ charged ion.negatively (Remember, if you gain something negative like electrons, you become more negative)

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