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Science 9: Water and Bonding (Part 1) REVIEW ASSIGNMENT

AB
A compound held together by covalent bonds is called a(n) ___.molecule
Atoms or molecules that become charged because they gain or lose electrons are called ___.ions
A negatively charged ion would be ____ by another negatively charged ion.repelled
A positively charged ion would be ____ by another positively charged ion.repelled
A negatively charged ion would be ___ by a positively charged ion.attracted
Two types of compounds are ____ and ____.molecules and ionic compounds.
Electrons gain potential energy when they move ________ the nucleus.away from
When an electron falls back toward the nucleus, energy is ___.released (or lost)
When electrons lose energy (by falling back toward the nucleus), the lost energy is usually released to the environment in the form of ___.heat
The first electron shell of an atom can hold no more than ___ electrons.two
The second electron shell of an atom can hold no more than ___ electrons.eight
The chemical behavior of an element depends mostly on ____.the number of electrons in its outermost shell
Electrons in the outermost shell of an atom are called ____ electronsvalence
The outermost shell of an atom is called the ___ shell.valence
An atom with a full valence shell of electrons is chemically _____ (a.k.a. _____)unreactive, inert
In _____ bonds, pairs of electrons are shared between two or more atoms.covalent p. 38
Single covalent bonds share ___ pair(s) of electrons.one pair (two electrons total)
Double covalent bonds share ___ pair(s) of electrons.two pairs (4 electrons total)
Triple covalent bonds share ___ pair(s) of electrons between the two atoms involved.three pairs (6 electrons total)
Draw the electron distribution diagram for a molecule of oxygen being held together with a double covalent bond.
Compounds formed by ionic bonds are called ____ .ionic compounds
The picture below shows the formation of a(n) _____ bond., ionic,
A weak attraction between hydrogen in one molecule and either an oxygen or nitrogen atom in another molecule is called a(n) _____ bond.hydrogen
Bonds in which the electrons between two atoms are shared about equally are called _____ bondsnonpolar covalent
Bonds in which the electrons between two atoms are not SHARED equally (because one atom's nucleus has a much stronger attraction for electrons) are called _____ bonds.polar covalent
Bonds in which electrons aren't shared at all (because one atom just steals one or more electrons from another atom) are called ______ bonds.ionic
A weak attraction between hydrogen in one molecule and either an oxygen or nitrogen atom in another molecule is called a(n) _____.hydrogen bond
Which side of a water molecule has a partial positive charge and which side has a partial negative charge?Oxygen side has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen end has a partial positive charge.
Molecules in which the overall charge is unequally distributed, leading to parts of the molecule having a partial positive charge while other parts have a partial negative charge (like water) are called ______.polar molecules
Why is it unlikely that two neighboring water molecules would arrange themselves like the ones shown below?, The hydrogen ends of each water molecule both have a partial positive charge, and therefore would repel each other, making it unlikely that they would be arranged like the picture below shows.,
The fact that water molecules are attracted to each other is an example of ____.cohesion,
The ability to pour water into a glass past the top of the glass, water forming drops that stick together, and waterbugs not falling through the surface of a pond can be explained by the phenomenon of _____.cohesion (Water is pretty cohesive because it is a polar molecule so the positive end of one water molecule are attracted to the negative ends of other water molecules. These attractions BETWEEN water molecules are caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds),
The attraction of water molecules to the surfaces of some materials is called _____.adhesion (Adhesion between water molecules and the glass in the graduated cylinder are responsible for the upward pull of water molecules along the sides, known as a meniscus. Specifically, the glass just above the water line is also attracting water molecules, so the water is pulled upward. This is also how capillary action works.) p.48,
The meniscus observed in a graduated cylinder full of water is caused by the ____ of water to the molecules that make up the glass in the cylinder., adhesion,
The type of substances that dissolve best in water are ____.ionic substances and polar molecules
Any substance that is attracted to water is said to be ____.hydrophilic (hydro = water, philic = loving)
Any substance that is not attracted by water is said to be ____.hydrophobic (hydro = water, phobic = fearing)
Which type of bond is by the straight line inside the water molecule?, straight lines = covalent bonds p.47,
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds, is called ____.cohesion,
The attraction between DIFFERENT kinds of substances is called ____.adhesion (Adhesion between water molecules and the glass in the graduated cylinder is responsible for the upward pull of water molecules along the sides, known as a meniscus. Specifically, the glass just above the water line is also attracting water molecules, so the water is pulled upward. This is also how capillary action works.),
A measure of how difficult it is to break or stretch the surface of a liquid is called ___.surface tension (This is responsible for the ability of the water strider in the picture below to stay on the surface of the water and is due to the hydrogen bonds that attract water molecules to each other),
What does the root word "philic-" mean?loving (Philia means loving. Hydro means water. Hydrophilic means water loving)
What does the root word "phobic-" mean?fearing (Phobia means fear. Hydro means water. Hydrophobic means water fearing)
Which type of bond is represented by the dotted line?, Dotted lines = hydrogen bonds,

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