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DNA, RNA, & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS II VOCAB-BIO21

ASSIGNED MONDAY -LOG 15 MINUTES BY 10 PM THURSDAY

AB
DNADEOXYRIBO NUCLEIC ACID
DNA HELICASEessential during DNA replication because separates double-stranded DNA into single strands
DNA POLYMERASEusually work in pairs to create two identical DNA strands from a single original DNA molecule, by "reading" the existing DNA strands to create two new strands that match the existing ones
DNA LIGASEjoins new strand of DNA to old strand by forming new chemical bond
DNA REPLICATIONthe process of making identical copies of DNA before cell division
SEMICONSERVATIVE REPLICATIONEach half of an original DNA molecule serves as a templete for a new strand, and the two new DNA molecules each have one old and one new strand.
DNA HELICASEunwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication.
DNA POLYMERASEEnzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
LEADING STRANDthe strand of DNA that is continuously synthesized into the replication fork.
LAGGING STRANDThe strand that is synthesized away from the replication fork , in fragments using sections called Okazaki fragments.
OKAZAKI FRAGMENTSSmall fragments of DNA produced on the lagging strand during DNA replication, joined later by DNA ligase to form a complete strand.
NUCLEIC ACIDSMacromolecules that includes DNA and RNA
NUCLEOTIDEA subunit of nucleic acids formed from a simple sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
ADENINENitrogen base that pairs with thymine in DNA
GUANINEA nitrogen base found in DNA; pairs only with cytosine.
THYMINEA nucleotide that pairs with adenine. Found only in DNA.
CYTOSINEA nitrogenous base found in DNA; pairs with guanine
HYDROGEN BONDA weak chemical bond used to hold complementary base pairs together
BASE PAIRSAny of the pairs formed between complementary bases in the two nucleotide chains of DNA
REPLICATION FORKA Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
DNALong Double Helix, made of Nucleotides
DEOXYRIBOSEsugar in DNA
PURINEcomposed of a double ring of six-member nitrogen-containing ring and a five-member nitrogen-containing ring joined together...includes adenine and guanine
PYRIMIDINEhave a six-member nitrogen-containing ring...includes cytosine and thymine
DNALong Double Helix, made of Nucleotides
DEOXYRIBOSEsugar in DNA
PURINEcomposed of a double ring of six-member nitrogen-containing ring and a five-member nitrogen-containing ring joined together...includes adenine and guanine
PYRIMIDINEhave a six-member nitrogen-containing ring...includes cytosine and thymine
DNAcontrols production of proteins
nucleuscontrols activities of cell through chromosomes
DNAdeoxyribonucleic acid
sugar (deoxyribo) & phosphatemakes up sides of of DNA double helix ladder
nitrogen basesmakes up rungs of DNA double helix
adeninea compound which is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine derivative, it is paired with thymine in double-stranded DNA.
guanineone of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A purine derivative, it is paired with cytosine in double-stranded DNA.
thyminea compound which is one of the four constituent bases of nucleic acids. A pyrimidine derivative, it is paired with adenine in double-stranded DNA.
cytosinea compound found in living tissue as a constituent base of nucleic acids. It is paired with guanine in double-stranded DNA.
hydrogenbond between the bases that compose the rungs of DNA
shape of DNAdouble helix
enzymea substance produced by a living organism which acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.


Physical Science/Biology Instructor
Winston Jr/Sr High School
Winston, MO

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