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Chapter 11, Respiration/ Key Terms

adenoidsLymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx; the pharyngeal tonsils.
alveolusA tiny air sac in the lungs through which gases are exchanged between the atmosphere and the blood in respiration; (pl. alveoli).
bronchioleOne of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes (root, bronchiol).
bronchusOne of the larger air passageways in the lungs. The bronchi begin as two branches of the trachea and then subdivide within the lungs (pl. bronchi) (root, bronch).
carbon dioxide(CO2)A gas produced by energy metabolism in cells and eliminated through the lungs.
complianceA measure of how easily the lungs expand under pressure. Compliance is reduced in many types of respiratory disorders.
diaphragmThe dome-shaped muscle under the lungs that flattens during inspiration (root, phren/o)
epiglottisA leaf-shaped cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the trachea.
expirationThe act of breathing out or expelling air from the lungs; exhalation.
larynxThe enlarged upper end of the trachea that contains the vocal cords (root, laryng/o).
inspirationThe act of drawing air into the lungs; inhalation.
glottisThe opening between the vocal cords.
lungA cone-shaped spongy organ of respiration contained within the thorax (root, pneum, pulm)
mediastinumThe space and organs between the lungs.
noseThe organ of the face used for breathing and for housing receptors for the sense of smell. Includes an external portion and an internal nasal cavity (root, nas/o, rhin/o).
oxygen(O2) The gas needed by cells to release energy from food in metabolism.
pharynxThe throat; a common passageway for food entering the esophagus and air entering the larynx (root, pharyng/o).
phrenic nerveThe nerve that activates the diaphragm (root, phrenic/o).
pleuraA double-layered membrane that covers the lungs (visceral pleura) and lines the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura) (root, pleur/o).
pleural spaceThe thin, fluid-filled space between the two layers of the pleura; pleural cavity.
sputumThe substance released by coughting or clearing the throat. It may contain a variety of material from the respiratory tract.
tracheaThe air passageway that extends from the larynx to the bronchi (root, trache/o).
turbinate bonesThe bony projections in the nasal cavity that contain receptors for the sense of smell. Also called conchae.
ventilationThe movement of air into and out of the lungs.
acidosisAbnormal acidity of body fluids. Respiratory acidosis is caused by abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide in the body.
alkalosisAbnormal alkalinity of body fluids. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by abnormally low levels of carbon dioxide in the body.
aspirationThe withdrawing of fluid from a cavity by suction; the accidental inhalation of food or other foreign material into the lungs.
asthmaA disease characterized by dyspnea and wheezing caused by spasm of the bronchial tubes or swelling of their mucous membranes.
atelectasisIncomplete expansion of a lung or part of a lung; lung collapse. May be present at birth or be caused by obstruction or compression of lung tissue (prefix atel/o means "imperfect").
bronchiectasisChronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi.
bronchitisinflammation of the bronchi.
cyanosisBluish discoloration of the skin due to lack of oxygen in the blood (adj. cyanotic).
dyspneaDifficult or labored breathing, sometimes with pain; "air hunger".
emphysemaA chronic pulmonary disease characterized by enlargement and destruction of the alveoli.
hemoptysisThe spitting of blood from the mouth or respiratory tract (ptysis means spitting)
hyperventilationIncreased rate and depth of breathing; increase in the amount of air entering the alveoli
hypoventilationDecreased rate and depth of breathing; decrease in the amount of air entering the alveoli
influenzaAn acute, contagious respiratory infection causing fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain.
pleurisyInflammation of the pleura; pleuritis. A symptom of pleuritis is sharp pain on inhalation.
pneumonoconiosisDisease of the respiratory tract caused by inhalation of dust particles. Named more specifically by the type of dust inhaled, such as silicosis, anthracosis, asbestosis.
pneumoniaInflammation of the lungs generally caused by infection. May involve the bronchioles and alveoli (bronchopneumonia) or one or more lobes of the lung (lobar pneumonia).
pneumonitisInflammation of the lungs; may follow infection or be caused by asthma, allergy, or inhalation of irritants.
pneumothoraxAccumulation of air or gas in the pleural space. May result from injury or disease or may be produced artificially to collapse a lung.
tuberculosisAn infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Often involves the lungs but may involve other parts of the body as well.
expectorationThe act of coughing up material from the respiratory tract. Also the material thus released; sputum.
hilumA depression in an organ where vessels and nerves enter. Also called hilus.
naresThe external openings of the nose; the nostrils (s. naris).
nasal septumThe partition that divides the nasal cavity into two parts (root spt/o means "septum").
sinusA cavity or channel. The paranasal sinuses are air-filled cavities in the bones of the face and skull that drain into the nasal cavity. They are named for the bones in which they are located, such as the sphenoid, ethmoid, and maxillary sinuses.
surfactantA substance that decreases surface tension within the alveoli and eases expansion of the lungs.
anoxiaLack or absence of oxygen in the tissues. Often used incorrectly to mean hypoxia.
apneaCessation of breathing.
asphyxiaCondition caused by inadequate intake of oxygen. suffocation (literally "lack of pulse").
bronchospasmNarrowing of the bronchi due to spasm of the smooth muscle in their walls. Common in cases of asthma and bronchitis.
Cheyne-Stokes respirationA repeating cycle of gradually increased then decreased respiration followed by a period of apnea. Due to depression of the breathing centers of the nervous system.
cor pulmonaleEnlargement of the right ventricle of the heart due to disease of the lungs or their blood vessels.
coryzaAcute inflammation of the nasal passages with profuse nasal discharge.
croupA childhood disease characterized by a barking cough, difficult breathing, and laryngeal spasm.
deviated septumA shifted nasal septum; may require surgical correction.
empyemaAccumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural space, pyothorax.
epistaxisHemorrhage form the nose; nosebleed (-staxis means "dripping").
fremitusA vibration, especially as felt through the chest wall on palpation.
hemothoraxPresence of blood in the pleural space.
hypercapnemiaExcess carbon dioxide in the blood.
hyperpneaAn increase in the rate and depth of breathing that may occur normally, as after exercise.
hypoxiaInsufficient oxygen in the tissues.
Kussmaul breathingRapid and deep gasping respiration without pause; characteristic of severe acidosis.
pleural effusionAccumulation of fluid in the pleural space. The fluid may contain blood (hemothorax) or pus (pyothorax).
pleural friction rubA sound heard on auscultation produced by the rubbing together of the two layers of the pleura. A common sign of pleurisy.
raleAbnormal chest sounds heard when air enters small airways or alveoli containing fluid. Usually heard during inspiration.
rhonchiAbnormal chest sounds produced in airways with accumulated fluids. More noticeable during expiration.
stridorA harsh, high-pitched sound caused by obstruction of an upper air passageway.
tachypneaAbnormal increase in the rate of respiration.
tussisA cough. An antitussive drug is one that relieves or prevents coughing.
wheezeA whistling or sighing sound caused by narrowing of a respiratory passageway.

Jeani Keogh

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