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Heredity & Evolution

Chapter 12

acquired traitstraits that develop during an individual's liftime and which are not inherited
artificial selectionintentional breeding of organisms by specific traits
artificially inseminatedprocedure in which the male's sperm is placed in the female's oviduct or uterus
breedsgroups of similar organisms within a species
controlled breedinga type of artificial selection carried out to produce best traits of a breed
crossbreedingmethod by which organisms of different breeds are mated to combine their desirable traits
evolutionprocess of change that occurs in living things over time
extinctany species that no longer exists today
fraternal twinstwin offspring that arise from two separate fertilized eggs; can be opposite sexes
genetic engineeringscientific development of new types of plants and animals by inserting genes for desirable traits from different species
geographic isolationphysical separation of populations
hybridizationmethod by which organisms of different breeds are mated to combine their desirable traits
identical twinstwo offspring that arise from one fertilized egg that splits after the two-celled embryo stage; always of the same sex
inbreedingbreeding method in which only closely related members of the same breed are mated
inherited traittrait controlled by genes, passed from parent to offspring
mutantan individual bearing a new genetic trait
mutationschanges in an inherited trait caused by a permanent change in a gene
natural selectionprocess by which more fit individuals survive to reproduce
sex chromosomesthe X and Y chromosomes; the pair of chromosomes that determines the sex of an offspring
sex-linked traitsinherited traits controlled by a gene carried on a sex chromosome; traits that occur more often in males than in females
speciationprocess by which new species evolve over time

Ms. Cobb

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