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Chapter 19 Vocab

Vocabulary words from Chapter 19

Bill of RightsFirst 10 Amendments to the Constitution. Constitutional guarantees of rights and liberties of American people
civil libertiesConstitutionally based freedoms guarenteed to individuals. Protects individuals from government INTERFERANCE. Ex. Fr. of speech,religion,press etc.
civil rightsRights belonging to citizens. Prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, sex, creed, or color. Guarentees citizens equal treatment under the law regardless of race, sex, or national orgin. Provides for government of the law.
Establishment ClausePart of the first amendment that prohibits the ESTABLISHMENT of a national religion.
Free Exercise ClausePart of the 1st Amendment that states that Congress may not make laws restricting or prohibting a person's religious practices
incorporationthe gradual process of applying the Bill of Rights to the states(14th Amend.)
due processthe principle, guaranteed by the Constitution, that federal and state govenmnet must not deprive an individual of life, liberty, or property by unfair or unreasonable actions.
procedural due processrules that police officers, courts, and lawyers must follow to protect persons who are suspected, accused, or convicted of a crime.
substantive due processthe principle that ensures that laws must be fair to all citizens.
Released TimeThe Court has allowed schools to relase children from school to attend religious classes if the classes are held on private property.
Prayers and the BibleThe Court has ruled against any laws requiring or suggesting prayers or the religious use of the Bible in public schools. the Bible maybe used as a historical document.
Student Religious GroupsThe Court has ruled that schools must allow student religious groups to meet inthe school on the same terms that it sets for other student organizations.
EvolutionThe Court has struck down State laws prohibiting the teaching of evolution or madating the teaching of the bibical account of creation.
Seasonal DisplaysThe Court has held that public displays of religious belierfs are permmissable only if they are part of an otherwise nonreligious or multireligious display.
Cahaplains in Congress and the State Legislatureresthe Court allos daily prayer in Congress and the State legislatureres because such prayer is based on tradition and because adults, unlike schoolchildred, are not"susceptible to religious indoctrination of peer pressure."
Tax ExemptionsThe Court allows tasc exemptions for religious organization, but denies tax-exempt status to religious organizations that practice racial discrimination
State Aid to Parochial SchoolsState aid to parochial schools exists in many forms, but is controversial.
Lemon Test1.The purpose of state aid to religious schools must be secular not religious, 2. Its primary effect must not be to aid or inhibit religion. 3. It must avoid an "excessive entanglement of government with religion
Pierce v. Society of Sisters 1925Outlawed cumpulsory public education and thereby allowed students to attend private and parchocial schools.

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