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Physical Properties of Soil

Chapter 3

bulk densitymass of oven-dry soil per unit volume
calichea zone of soil, near the surface, that is cemented by lime
claypana dense sunsoil layer with a higher clay content than the soil above it
clodsa user-made soil aggregate, produced by tillage when a soil is too wet or dry
compactionthe squeezing together of soil particles by the weight of farm or construction equipment
friablea consistency term, expressing how easily a moist soil can be crumbled
gleyinga process or condition of reducing conditions indicated by the presence of gray and mottled gray colors in a soil horizon
infiltrationdownward entry of water into the soil
loama medium soil texture class, in which sand, silt, and clay contribute almost equally to soil properties
massive soila structureless soil in which each soil particle sticks to neighboring particles
mottlingspots of different colors in a soil, usually indicating poor drainage
particle densitythe mass per unit colume of soil particles, excluding pore space
permeabilityease with which gases, liquids, and plant roots pass through a specific mass of soil
puddlingdispersal of soil aggregates caused by working soil when wet, creating a massive surface layer
soil aggregatesa mass of fine soil particles glued together by clay, organic matter, or microbial gums
soil consistencecharacteristics of a soil in its response or resistance to pressure, as described at various soil moisture contents
soil texturethe relative proportion of the soil separates in a soil
tilthphysical condition of the soil in terms of how easily it can be tilled, etc.

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