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Chapter 8 vocab

George WashingtonChosen by Congress to head the colonial army.
William HoweWashington's "adversary"-- didn't crush when had chance; supposed to help Burgoyne capture the Hudson River Valley, but attacked Philly instead.
Nathaniel GreeneAmerican general-- used strategy of delay; called "Fighting Quaker"; cleared most of Georgia and South Carolina.
Benedict ArnoldGreat fighter, but found to be a traitor.
John BurgoyneBritish general; part of a scheme to try and capture Hudson River Valley.
Charles CornwallisBritish general exhausted by Greene; attacked in Yorktown.
Thomas PaineCalled for independence and a democratic republic; wrote Common Sense
Barry St. LegerBritish general in reserve for Hudson River Valley capture.
George Rogers ClarkSeized British forts by surprise.
Richard Henry LeeMoved that the colonies should be united (to the Congress)
Horatio GatesForced Burgoyne to surrender his entire command at Saratoga.
John Paul JonesFamous, hard-fighting navy officer.
Thomas JeffersonDrafted the Declaration of Independence.
Marquis de LafayetteFrenchman-- hung copy of Declaration on his wall.
Admiral de GrasseFrench admiral-- assaulted Cornwallis in Yorktown; blockaded sea.
Patrick Henry"give me liberty or give me death"
Comte de RochambeauCommanded French troops that arrived in Rhode Island; prepared for attack on New York.
John JayAmerican peace negotiator--- made secret overtures to London.
mercenariesHired soldiers (i.e. German Hessians)
natural rightsRights of humankind, for being born.
privateeringAuthorized privately-owned ships that preyed on enemy shipping.
Second Continental CongressMet in Philadelphia in 1775; appointed Washington, made committee for declaration.
Common SenseWritten by Thomas Paine.
Declaration of IndependenceWritten by Thomas Jefferson-- listed grievances and declared the colonies independent.
Loyalists/ToriesLoyal to Britain; change is bad; older
Patriots/WhigsRebels fighting for independence.
Treaty of Paris of 1783Ended the war-- British recognized U.S. independence, and U.S. got land.


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