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Chapter 6 Learning

stimulussomething that produces a reaction
responsea reaction
classical conditioningsimple form of learning in which one stimulus comes to call forth the response
unconditioned stimulusa stimulus that causes a response that is automatic, not learned
unconditioned responseautomatic response
conditioned responsea learned response to a stimulus that was previously neutral, or meaningless
conditioned stimulusa learned stimulus
taste aversiona learned avoidance of a particular food
extinctionoccurs when the conditioned stimulus is disconnected from the unconditioned stimulus
spontaneous recoverywhen an organism displays responses that were extinguished earlier
generalizationthe act of responding in the same ways to stimuli that seem to be similar
discriminationthe act of responding differently to stimuli that are not similar to each other
floodinga person is exposed to the harmless stimulus until fear responses to that stimulus are extinguished
systematic desensitizationused to help people overcome their fears
counterconditioninga pleasant stimulus is paired repeatedly with a fearful one, counteracting the fear
operant conditioningpeople and animals learn to do certain things - and not to do others - because of the results of what they do.
reinforcementprocess by which a stimulus increases the chances that the preceding behavior will occur again
primary reinforcerreinforcers that function due to the biological makeup of the organism
secondary reinforcermoney, attention, and social approval
positive reinforcerincrease the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are applied
negative reinforcerincrease the frequency of the behavior they follow when they are removed
schedule of reinforcementwhen and how often the reinforcement occurs
continuous reinforcementreinforcement of a behavior every time the behavior occurs
partial reinforcementa behavior is not reinforced every time it occurs
shapingis a way of teaching complex behaviors in which one first reinforces small steps in the right direction
latent learninglearning that remains hidden until it is needed
observational learningobserving and imitating others

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