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Mendelian Genetics

Reviews basic terms in mendelian genetics

AB
homozygoustwo alleles are the same
heterozygous (hybrid)two alleles are different
Law of DominanceMendel's law which states that when an individual is heterozygous for a trait, the dominant one is expressed.
SegregationIn gametogenesis the alleles one trait of the parents separate into different gametes since the homologous chromasomes separate.
RecombinationThe separated alleles can come together in a new way when the sperm and egg come together in fertilization.
How does sexual reproduction create diversity in the population?Alleles are separated and recombine causing new varieties of traits.
DominantThe allele which is expressed
RecessiveThe allele which is not expressed
homozygous recessiverr
homozygous dominantRR
heterozygousRr
Monohybrid crossa hybrid crossing with a hybrid (Rr*Rr)
Gregor Mendelthe Father of Genetics
Gene-Chromasome TheoryStates that traits are controlled by genes which are found in specific places on chromasomes
allelepairs of genes on homologous chromasomes that control the same trait, but may be different "choices" for that trait (blue or brown eye color)
phenotypewhat you look like
genotypewhat your genes say you are
test crossa way to determine if a dominant phenotype is heterozygous or homozyogous genotype (cross with a homozygous recessive)
Intermediate Inheritancewhen the heterozygous phenotype is a mix between the homozygous phenotypes
Codominanta type of intermediate inheritance where both alleles are expressed (roan cattle)
Incomplete dominancea type of intermediate inheritance where the heterozygous is a blend between both alleles (pink flowers)
Independent assortmentmost genes separate randomly in meiosis so two different traits are inherited independently (you might get hair color of mom, but eye color of dad)
Gene Linkagesometimes genes do not assort randomly if they are found on the same chromasome (red hair and freckles)
How do we get variation if genes are linked?crossing over
multiple allelessome traits have more than two alleles even though only two alleles are expressed in any one person
sex determinationhow sex chromasomes combine to make a male or female
XXfemale
XYmale
autosomesthe 22 chromasomes controlling most "body traits"
sex chromasomesthe x and y chromasomes controlling sex determination
Thomas Hunt Morganused fruit flies to demonstrate that some genes are on the sex chromasomes
Sex-linked traitsgenes which are located on the sex chromasomes and have a special inheritance pattern
carriersfemales which carry a sex-linked gene, but do not have the trait since they are heterozygous

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