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Glaciers

Glaciers are land-based accumulations of ice that are moving or have moved in the past.

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glacierland-based ice, with movement now or in the past
icefield, snowfieldland-based ice, no movement
sea ice, pack iceice that is not land-based, may be moving
ice floea moving, smaller chunk of sea or pack ice
iceberga moving, smaller chunk of glacial ice now in the ocean
alpine glaciationglaciation in and controlled by a mountainous terrain
valley glacierglaciers formed in mountain valleys
cirque glaciersmall valley glacier located in the headward portion of the valley
simple valley glaciera valley glacier that is similar in scale to its valley
compound valley glacierlarger valley glacier that receives ice from more than one tributary valley
trough valley glacierlarger valley glacier that receives ice from all the valleys in the system
piedmont glaciervalley glacier that extends beyond it valley
tidewater glaciervalley glacier that extends into the ocean
radial outflow glaciervalley glacier that receives ice from an icecap above the valley
continental glaciationlarge scale glacier that overpowers a landscape
ice sheetlarge scale glacier that is layer like in geometry
ice capice sheet found in a mountain range
continental glacierice sheet found in relatively flat terrain
ice shelfice sheet flows off the land surface and into the ocean
snowflakehexagonal crystal of the mineral ice
ice granulea rounded pellet of ice
firna frozen layer of ice granules
basal slipthe component of flow in a glacier at its contact with bedrock
plastic flowthe component of flow in a glacier within its lower portion
zone of crevassingthe upper rigid surface zone of a glacier
glacial headzone of accumulation, a glacier's proximal end
zone of accumulationwhere ice mass is added to a glacier
firnline, snowlineboundary between the zone of accumulation and the zone of wasting
glacial toe, snoutzone of wasting, a glacier's distal end
ablationthe wasting of a glacier by melting
sublimationwating of a glacier by loss to atmosphere
icebery calvingwasting of a glacier by loss of ice chunks
glacial advance, waxingaccumulation > wasting, when ice mass is gained
stillstandaccumulation = wasting, when ice mass is in balance
glacial retreat, waningaccumulation< wasting, when ice mass is lost
glacial surgea temporary advance of the toe due to a flow rate increase, little change in ice mass
plucking, quarryingglacial erosion in which solid materials are moved
abrasionglacial erosion due to solid materials in motion
rock flourthe fine grained sediment formed by glacial abrasion
glacial polishunder-ice erosional feature in which bedrock is abraded smooth by rock flour
glacial striationsunder-ice erosional features formed by a parallel set of scratches cut by glacial rocks as drag marks
glacial groovesunder-ice erosional features formed by furrows cut by larger glacial rocks
whaleback, roche moutonneeunder-ice erosional feature formed by an oval, asymmetrical hill, with its taller end oriented in the down flow direction
U-shaped valleyglacial valley formed by under-ice erosional
cirquethe headward portion of a U-shpaed valley
fjordU-shaped valley now flooded by the ocean to form coastal bays and inlets
tarncirque basin lake
pater noster lakesa chain of lakes occupied shallow rock basins in a U-shaped valley
nunatakthe peak of a glaciated mountain that is above the ice
hornerosional mountain peak formed above the ice
areteerosional mountain ridge formed above the ice
cola pass, or saddle, that connects two cirques across an arete
truncated spurthe lower end of an arete whose end has been eroded by a trough glacier
hanging valleysmall U-shaped valley whose lower end is suspended above a trough valley
driftglacial deposits
tillice-melt deposits
outwashmeltwater deposits
loessa layer of wind-blown sediment
morainelandscape feature composed of till
end morainea ridge of till that forms at the toe of a glacial
terminal end morainea ridge of till that marks the maximum advance position of a glacier
recessional end morainea ridge of till that marks a stillstand during retreat
lateral moraineridge of till that forms along the side of a glacier
medial moraineridge of till that forms in the middle of a glacier, formed when two lateral moraine combine
ground morainea layer of till that forms during steady retreat
drumlinan oval, asymmetrical hill of till, with its taller end oriented toward the flow of a glacier
drumlin fielda group of drumlins with similar compass orientations
rock drumlinan oval, asymmetrical hill of bedrock, covered in a layer of till
erratica transported glacial boulder that differs from the local rock
boulder traina row of erratic boulder
outwash plainlarge layer of meltwater deposits
valley trainsmall layer of meltwater deposits associated with a valley glacier
kamea hill of outwash
kame terracea ridge of outwash
eskera ridge of outwash formed by an under-ice meltwater stream
kettledepression in ground moraine or outwash sheet, formed when buried block of ice melts
potholebuilding-size kettle
kettle lakea small lake found in a kettle
varved claysmeltwater lake deposits that contain an alternating pair of layers thought to be seasonal in origin
dropstone shalelake or marine shales with large rocks dropped into place by melting icebergs
pluvial lakeIce Age lake formed with the change in weather patterns


Russell J. Wernlund

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