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Biology Cell Structure and Function

Discusses cells, who discovered them, their parts and functions

Who first used an early compound microscope to see cells?Robert Hooke from England
Name the scientist who saw tiny living organisms through a microscopeAnton van Leeuwenhoek of Holland
1. All living things are composed of cells 2.Cells are the basic unit of structure and function 3.New cells come from existing cells: What is this?The cell theory
These cells do not have a nucleus.Prokaryotes
These cells have a nucleus.Eukaryotes
Which organisms are prokaryotes.Bacteria
Which organisms are eukaryotic.Plants, animals, fungi and protists
What are the structures in eukaryotic cells called?organelles
What does organelle mean?little organs
Cell biologist think of cells in two different parts - what are they?nucleus and cytoplasm
What is the cytoplasm?the jelly like portion of the cell outside of the nucleus in which the organelles float
What is in the nucleus?the structure that controls the cells activity
What surrounds the nucleus?the nuclear envelope
What are the dots on the nuclear envelope called?Nuclear pores
What are nuclear pores for?allows messages and instruction to move in and out of the nucleus
What is chromatin?granular material in the nucleus made of DNA coiled around protein
What is a chromosome?threadlike structures that contain genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next
What is a nucleolus?small dense area in the nucleus that the assembly of ribosomes begins
What is a ribosome?small particles of RNA where the protein is assembled
What is the endoplasmic reticulum or "E.R?"a folded membrane where lipid components of the cell membrane are assembled - proteins modified
What happens on the rough endoplasmic reticulum?this is the place that the proteins are released or exported
What happens in the free ribosomes?cellular proteins are made there
What is the difference between the rough E.R. and the smooth E.R.?the first has ribosomes on it, the second does not.
What does the smooth E.R. do?Helps to detoxify drugs
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?to modify, sort and package proteins from the E.R. for storage in the cell or secretion outside the cell
What does a lysosome do?It is filled with enzymes that breakdown lipids carbs and protein - also remove old organelles - the clean up crew
What does the vacuole do?it stores materials like water, salt, protein, and carbs
What is a contractile vacuole?when a cell has too much water, it pumps it out of the cell
How does the Mitochondria help the cell?this organelle converts the chemical energy stored infood into compounds that are easier to use
Explain the chloroplast.organelle that captures the energy of the sun and uses it for photosynthesis
What is the cytoskeleton?protein filaments that help the cell keep its shape - also helps in movement
Name two of the main protein filaments that make up the cytoskeleton.Microfilaments and microtubules
What is a microtubule?hollow structures made of protein - and helps in cell division
What are centrioles?they help with cell division - only occur in animal cells
What is the job of the cell membrane? (also called plasma membrane)regulates or controls what enters and leaves the cell - also protects the cell
Why is the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane called a "bilayer?"It has two layers of lipids
Which type of cells have a cell wall?only plant cells
What is the job of the cell wall?To support and protect the cell
What are most cell walls made from?fibers of carbohydrates, cellulose and proteins
What is a solute?Substances that are in a mixture, a mixture requires two or more
Describe diffusionWhen particles move from an area of great concentration to an area of less concentration
Describe equilibriumWhen the concentration of solute is equal on both sides
Why doesn't diffusion in a cell use energy?Because it depends on random particle movement requiring no extra effort
What happens if a cell membrane is permeable to a certain substance?That substance can move through the cell membrane
What happens if a cell membrane is impermeable to a certain substance?That substance can't move through the cell membrane
What is osmosis?the diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane
When do two solutions become isotonic?when the concentrations on both sides of a membrane is the same
What does "hypertonic' mean?liquid is moving out of the cell
What does "hypotonic" mean?liquid is moving into the cell
How does the protein channel help the cell?cells that cannot move through the lipid bilayer can move through this
What is it called when molecules move through the protein channel?facilitated diffusion
What is the cell membrane (also called plasma membrane) mainly made of?a lipid bilayer
Name the parts of the nucleus.nuclear envelope, nuclear pores, chromatin, nucleolus
What is active transport?When cells must move into an area of high concentration - requires energy
What is endocytosis?Taking material into the cell
What is phagocytosis?means cell eating - cytoplasm surrounds a particle, package it, then the cell engulfs it
What is pinocytosis?tiny pockets form along the cell membrane, fill w liquid, pinch off to form vacuoles in the cell
What is exocytosis?the vacuole membrane surrounds some material and forces it out of the cell
What does cell specialization mean?When cells develop in different ways to do different tasks.
What is a tissue?A group of cells grouped into a unit
Name the four types of tissues.muscle, epithelial, nervous, connective
What is a group of tissues called?organs
What is a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function called?organ system

Bear Lake Middle School
Montpelier, ID

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