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Diversity and Variation

Practice and learn important terminology and concepts from Chapter 5 which discusses the science of taxonomy.

taxonomyBranch of biology that identifies and groups organisms in ways that reflect relationships and distinguish one organism from another.
binomial nomenclatureSystem of two name naming used to give organisms a unique scientific name
common nameName given to an organism by the local natives of an area.
biodiversityTerm used to describe the many different forms of life that exist
structural homologychemical likeness that points common ancestry
kingdomLargest taxon which contains organisms with the most diversity
phylumSubdivision of a kingdom
orderSubdivision of a class
genusSubdivision of a family
familyTaxon formed by similar genera
classTaxon formed by similar orders
phylumTaxon formed by similar classes
MoneraKingdom of prokaryotic unicellular organisms
AnimaliaKingdom of multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs
FungiKingdom of multicellular eukaryotic saprophytes
AlgaePlant-like protests
CyanobacteriaAutotrophic monerans
BryophytaPlants without a vascular system to transport water
GymnospermsPlants that form naked seeds inside a cone
MonocotyledonaeSeeds with only one storage area, leaves with parallel veins, and scattered vascular tissues
VertebratesWith backbones
PoriferaNo body symmetry and bodies with many holes through which they filter food
AnnelidaBilateral symmetry, one way digestive system, and segmented bodies
NematodaRounded bodies, bilateral symmetry, and one way digestive system
ArthropodaJointed legs and an exoskeleton
AgnathaJawless fish
OsteichthyesFish with bony skeletons
ReptiliaDry scaly skin and produce amniotic eggs with a leathery shell
AvesWarm blooded and have bodies covered with feathers
Arachnoidea2 body regions (cephalothorax and abdomen) with 4 pairs of legs
DiplopodaBody with many segments and two pairs of legs on each segment
BryophytaSmall nonvascular plants found in moist habitats
MonocotyledonaePlants with flower parts in threes, parallel leaves, seed has one storage area
PterophytaVascular plants with horizontal underground stem, compound leaves, reproduce with spores
CiliatesProtists that move by cilia and have micronucleus and macronucleus
SarcodinaProtists that move by pseudopodia
PhaeophytaPlant-like protists with brown pigment, brown seaweeds
RhodophytaPlant-like protists that contain red pigment, source of agar
speciesGroup of organisms capable of breeding in nature to produce fertile offspring
LinnaeusDeveloped the modern system of classification of organisms
scientific nameTwo word name consisting of Genus and species
polymorphismA species that contains two or more distinct types of individuals in the same population
chemical homologyLikenesses in forms of organisms that points to common ancestry
speciesSmallest taxon, which contains organisms with the most similarity
classSubdivision of a phylum
familySubdivision of an order
speciesSubdivision of a genus
genusTaxon formed by similar species
orderTaxon formed by similar families
kingdomTaxon formed by similar phyla
ProtistsKingdom containing eukaryotic unicellular organisms
PlantaKingdom containing multicellular eukaryotic autotrophs.
SaprophyticType of nutrition in which organism absorb nutrients from dead or decaying matter
ProtozoaAnimal-like protists
SchizophytaMoneran phylum of heterotrophs
TracheophytaPlants with vascular system to transport water
AngiospermsPlants with seeds protected by a fruit formed by a flower
DicotyledonsSeeds with two storage areas, have leaves with branched veins, and stems with vascular tissue arranged in rings.
InvertebratesWithout backbones
Coelenterata (Cnideria)Radial symmetry, two way digestive systems, and mouths surrounded by tentacles
ChordatesDorsal hollow nerve cord and pharyngeal gill slits at some point in their life
MolluscaSoft bodies, a muscular foot, and some form of a shell
ChondrichthyesFish with cartilaginous skeletons
AmphibiaMoist glandular skin with larval forms breathe with gill , adults breathe through skin or lungs
MammaliaHair on body, live young fed milk
Insecta3 body regions (head, thorax, and abdomen); 3 pairs of legs and most have 2 pairs of wings
Crustacea2 body regions (cephalothorax and abdomen), two pair of antenna, mostly aquatic
GymnospermsVascular plants, naked seeds in cones, needle-shaped leaves
AngiospermsVascular plants, seed enclosed in fruits
DicotyledonaeFlower parts in fours or fives, net-veined leaves, seed with two storage areas
FlagellatesProtists that move by flagella
SporozoaProtists that are usually nonmotile, parasitic, move from host to host by forming spores
ChlorophytaPlant-like protists with green pigments
ChrysophytaPlant-like protists that store food as oil, shells made of silica
PlatyhelminthesBilateral symmetry, 3 tissue layers, and 2-way digestive system
EchinodermsRadial symmetry and internal skeleton composed of calcium plates
Annelidaleeches, earthworm
Nematodavinegar eels, filarial worms
Coelenterata (Cnidaria)sea anemone, hydra
Platyhelminthesplanaria, liver flukes
Echinodermatasea cucumber, starfish
Arthropodainsects, spiders, shrimp
Reptiliasnakes, lizards
Agnathalamprey eel, hagfish
Arachnoideaspiders, ticks, scorpions
Amphibiafrogs, toads, salamanders
Chondrichthyessharks, manta rays
Molluscaclams, oysters, snails
Crustacealobsters, crabs, shrimp

Science Instructor
Scarsdale, NY

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