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ALBRIGHT MIDDLE AGES REVIEW - CHAPTERS 8 & 9

AB
Barbarian tribes that invaded Europe & helped the collapse of the Roman Empire?Franks, Vandals, Visigoths, Ostrogoths
Fierce barbarian group from Central Asia forced a mass migration & led by Attila - excellent horsemen, used stirrupsHuns
Barbarian group whose name became synonymous with senseless destructionVandals
Germanic group that created a kingdom in modern day FranceFranks
The "savior" of Christianity in Europe - nicknamed "the Hammer" - stopped the Muslim invasion at Tours, 732Charles Martel
Battle in which Charles Martel stopped the Muslim invasion of EuropeBattle of Tours
Because Charles Martel defeated the muslims at the Battle of Tours, which religion remained dominant in Europe?Christianity
Frankish king crowned "Holy Roman Emperor" by the pope in 800?Charlemagne
Why is Charlemagne important?He was the first to create a united Christian Europe & ruled with a government bureaucracy
How did Charlemagne set up his government bureaucracy to rule his empire?He appointed counts to rule local regions, then appointed officials ["missi domenici"] to check on the counts, listening to complaints & seeing justice done
System of managing government through departments run by appointed officialsbureaucracy
What happened to Charlemagne's united Europe [empire] after he died?It collapsed
Feudalisma military & political system based on land ownership & loyalty
How feudalism workedLords divided their land among lesser lords [vassals] who in exchange owed military service & promised loyalty to the greater lord
What 2 things did the Lords give to their vassals [lesser lords]?a fief [land estate] & protection
What 2 things did the Vassal [lesser lord] owe to his greater Lord?military service & loyalty [homage]
Why did the feudal system develop?After Charlemagne died, rulers were too weak to protect people from the Vikings & other barbarian invaders. People needed protection.
Vassalthe lesser lord who owed military service & loyalty to the greater lord
Fiefthe estate granted by the Lord to his vassal [in exchange for the vassal's military service]
knightnoble who served as a mounted warrior to a lord
ChivalryCode of honor followed by knights requiring them to be brave, loyal & true to their word
How did chivalry affect women?Raised their status, calling for women to be protected/cherished
the Manorthe lord's estate including one or more villages & the surrounding lands
Serfspeasants who lived on the manor & were bound to the land
Why was the manor at the heart of medieval economy?The people on the manor had to produce everything they needed - it was self-sufficient
What jobs did the serfs do?Farm the lord's land, repair roads, fences, bridges
What did the lord give the serfs in exchange for their labor?A small piece of land for themselves & protection
How were the serfs different than slaves? How were theyalike?Serfs could not be bought or sold, but they could not leave the land without the lord's permission
How could "being bound" to the land help the serfs?they could not get kicked off - if the land were sold or given to a vassal, the serfs went with it.
clergychurch people - the pope, bishops, priests, monks
noblesat the top of feudal society - lords, their vassals, knights & high Church officials
peasantsfree farmers & serfs - made up the majority & at the bottom of feudal society
fallowland left empty for a year to rejuvenate the soil
sacramentChurch rituals [Baptism, communion, etc.] you needed for salvation [to avoid Hell & gain God's grace for Heaven]
secularnon-religious [worldly]
What was the most important institution during the Middle Agesthe Church
What were the religious duties of the Church?To serve peoples' spiritual needs, teach Christianity, administer the sacraments & conduct mass
What were some secular [non-religious] roles of the Church?owned land, collected a tax [tithe], had their own laws & courts, could punish people who disobeyed the Church
What was the most severe Church punishment?Excommunication - being kicked out of the Church & not able to receive the sacraments
Canon LawChurch laws concerning such things as religious teachings, marriage & morals
PopeHead of the Church & God's earthly representative
Bishopa high-ranking Church official with authority over a local area or diocese
priestleader of a religious community & under the authority of a bishop
monks & nunslived, worked & prayed in monasteries - often provided social services & preserved learning
3 basic social services performed by monks & nunsCare for the sick, alms [charity] to the poor, education
How did monks & nuns preserve learning?They copied ancient Greek & Latin texts & the Bible
monasteriesplaces where monks & nuns lived
missionariespeople who spread Christianity to non-Christian lands
Missionary who brought Christianity to IrelandSt. Patrick
chartera written document that set out the rights & privileges of a town
capitalmoney for investment
guildan association of merchants or artisans [in the same occupation] formed to protect their economic interests, set standards, prices & wages
What group spurred economic recovery in Europe & how?peasants - they adopted new farming technologies [iron plow, horse harness, 3-field system] that produced more food
What happened to the population of Europe between 1000-1300 & why?population doubled due to the increase in food
Trade fairsplaces where traders & customers met to trade animals, farm goods & products - usually near a river or where trade routes met
How did towns develop?Trade fairs closed in winter, merchants stayed near castles, artisans also stayed to make goods the merchants could sell - eventually became towns
3 new business practices that developedpartnerships, insurance, bills of exchange
apprenticeperson learning a trade under a guild master
titheChurch tax - 10% of income
Anti-SemitismPrejudice against Jews - who were blamed for Jesus' death & then for every other disaster that happened
William the ConquerorDuke of Normandy, invades England & defeats King Harold at the Battle of Hastings 1066 - gains control of England by use of the feudal system
Domesday BookCensus taken by William I [the conqueror] which greatly extended his control over England
Magna CartaNobles pressure King John to sign - limited the power of the king because he had to consult his Great Council before raising taxes & protected individual rights
Parliamentevolved from the "Great Council" became the legislative body in England made up of the House of lords [nobles & clergy] & the House of Commons [knights & townspeople]
How did the Magna Carta lead to the first Parliament?Magna Carta said the king could not raise taxes without the consent of the Great Council of Barons [later became Parliament]
common lawin England, system of law based on court decisions that became the law that applied to everyone
juryin England, group of people sworn to make a decision in a legal case
Holy Roman EmpireEmpire that included present day Germany & Austria
Crusadea holy war
The Crusadesa series of wars undertaken by European Christians to gain back the Holy Land from the Muslims
Holy LandLand around Jerusalem, where Jesus lived & died, sacred to Christians
Religious reasons for going on the CrusadesThe pope promised Crusaders their sins would be forgiven & they would immediately go to heaven if they died; many religious people wanted to help Christians who were threatened by the Muslims
Other reasons for the CrusadesEconomic - wealth from plunder; Political - set up Crusader states ruled by Christian knights
Crusader statesFeudal states set up by Christian knights in Jerusalem, Palestine & Syria during the First Crusades
Did the Crusades ultimately win back the Holy Land?No
Results of the CrusadesIncreased Trade; Exposure to more advanced cultures of Muslims & Byzantines [cultural diffusion]; Kings gain power by raising taxes & armies for Crusades; Feudalsim begins to end [Nobles sell their estates, allow serfs to buy their freedom]; Crusaders learn to build better ships, make more accurate maps, and improve their weapons [gunpowder from China]
Theologystudy of religion
Scholasticismthe use of reason to support faith
vernaculareveryday language of ordinary people [Books started to be written in ordinary languages like English that people could read, instead of Latin]
universitydeveloped from cathedral schools modeled on guilds with charters that set standards for learning
cathedralGreat stone churches that became the greatest of the architectural achievements in the Middle Ages
Thomas AquinasFamous scholastic writer who examined Christian teachings in light of reason
"Canterbury Tales"First work written in English, [by Chaucer], sketches a range of medieval characters
Dantewrote the "Divine Comedy" - making fun of religion by taking a journey through Purgatory, Hell & Heaven
"Divine Comedy"Written by Dante - made fun of religion by taking a journey through purgatory, Hell & Heaven
ChaucerWrote "Canterbury Tales" - the first book written in the English vernacular
RomanesqueType of architecture that looked like a fortress [thick walls, slits for windows]
GothicSoaring architecture whose tall, graceful spires, lofty ceilings & stained glass windows inspired people to look up to Heaven
Flying buttressesHeld up the high walls & ceilings of Gothic Cathedrals
Doom paintingPaintings of Hell & the Last Judgement - meant to teach people religion & to fear sin & not to disobey the Church
Why did churches have statues & doom paintings?People could not read or write, so they needed visuals to teach them about religion
Black DeathGlobal epidemic spread by the Bubonic plague
Bubonic plaguea contagious disease spread by fleas on rats
How did the Black Death [Bubonic Plague] start?Monguls invaded China – dead bodies were catapulted over city walls, spreading disease – fleas on rats brought the disease to Europe on trading ships
What were the effects of the Black Death [Bubonic plague]?1/3 of Europe died; Social upheaval - people turned to witchcraft or religious fanatacism; Economic - production stopped as workers & employers died; Anti-Semitism - Jews were blamed
What were some long-term effects of the Black Death [Bubonic plague]Improved economy - less available workers meant higher wages; Church is weakened - people begin to doubt - faith did not stop the plague
Dance of DeathSo many people died during the Black Death, that death was personified by the "Grim Reaper" [a skeleton with a scythe to harvest dead souls]
FlagellantsDuring the Black Death, People who beat themselves with whips to show they repented their sins [They thought the plague was God's punishment]
Hundred Years WarSeries of wars betwen England & France
What caused the Hundred Years War?English kings claimed & held land in France - the English king claimed the French crown
Joan of ArcYoung French girl, heard God tell her to lead the French to victory in the 100 Years War; she was burned at the stake by the English; later made a saint by the Church
What new weapons were the result of the 100 Years war?the long bow, gun powder & cannons - made feudal warfare & knights out-dated
What is a long-term efect of the 100 Years War for England?It lost its land in France, but turned to overseas trade - which led to discovering new lands like America
John WycliffeEnglish professor, wanted to reform the Church - said the Bible, not the pope had authority over Christians & translated the Bible into English
Jan HusChurch reformer & professor in Bohemia - influenced by Wycliffe, burned at the stake as a heretic
hereticperson who goes against the teachings of the Church
Why did reformers see a need to reform the Church?High Church officials [the pope & bishops] had become too wealthy, powerful & corrupt
What caused the split [Great Schism] in the Church?Too many popes - one in France & one in Rome
What was a result of the Church schism [split]?The Church's power was weakened
What effect did the 100 Years War have on France?National pride [nationalism]


Resource
Greenville High School

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