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nutrition principles

a review of terminology from chapter 4 of Holt Health

hungerthe body's physical response to the need for food
appetitethe desire to eat based on the pleasure derived from eating
essential nutrientssix categories of substances from food that nourish the body: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
caloriea unit of measurement for energy. 1 nutrition calorie=1 kilocalorie
carbohydratesa class of nutrients containing starches, simple sugars, glycogen, and dietary fiber.
dietary fibera subclass of complex carbohydrates with a high ratio of plant material that is not absorbed by the body
complex carbohydratesa subclass of carbohydrates that includes starches, dietary fiber, and glycogen
fatsa class of nutrients that supply more energy per gram than carbohydrates or proteins
saturated fatsfats that contain single bonds between carbon atoms and the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon
unsaturated fatsfats that contain one or more double bonds between carbon atoms and have less than the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to carbon.
HDL(high-density lipoproteins) compounds that remove cholesterol from the blood and transport it back to the liver
LDL(low-density lipoproteins) compounds that carry cholesterol to cells for cell processes
cholesterola fatlike substance that is part of all animal cells and is needed for the production of some hormones and fat digestion
proteinsclass of nutrients consisting of long chains of amino acids, which are basic components of body tissue and provide energy
complete proteina protein that includes all nine essential amino acids.
incomplete proteina protein that lacks one or more of the essential amino acids.
essential amino acids:a group of nine amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the body and must be supplied by food.
vitaminsorganic substances that assist in the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
minerals:inorganic substances that are generally absorbed to form structural components of the body.
dehydrationa state in which the body has lost more water than has been taken in.

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