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The Chromosome Theory of Inheritance

Review of vocabulary from Chapter 3 of Hartwell et al. Genetics: Genes to Genomes - McGraw-Hill Publishers

acrocentricchromosome with on arm much longer than the other
anaphasestage of mitosis and meiosis when chromosomes move to opposite cell poles
astral microtubulesstar-shaped network of fibers that arise from centrioles during mitosis
autosomenon-sex chromosome
bivalentfigure formed by synapsis of chromosomes in a diploid organism in meiosis
cell cyclelife cycle of a cell from formation through cell division
centriolemicrotubule organizing organelle in animals
centromereDNA sequence that binds to kinetochore proteins
centromeric fibersmicrotubules that invade the kinetochore
centrosomemicrotubule organizing center
chromatidsingle chain of chromatin in a chromosome
chromatincomplex of DNA bound to histone proteins
chromosomeDNA with terminal telomeric sequences and internal centromeric sequence
coenocytemultinucleate cell
condensationpackaging of chromatin into visible chromosomes
contractile ringring of actin filaments that get smaller to accomplish cytokinesis
cytokinesisdivision of cytoplasm
diakinesisprophase I stage - chiasmata terminalize
diploidgenome composed of paired chromosomes
diplotenecrossed-over chromosomes begin to separate
G1 phasefirst gap phase - cell grows and organelles multiply
G2 phasestage in which replicated DNA checked for errors
gametehaploid cells for sexual reproduction
gametogenesisprocess of formation of sex cells
germ cellsstem cells for gametes
germlinesex cells
haploidgenome with only one copy of each chromosome
hemizygousgenes in nonhomologous regions of X and Y chromosomes
homologous chromosomesmembers of the same pair of chromosomes
interkinesisanother term for interphase
interphaseG1 + S + G2
karyotypechromosome number and arrangement
kinetochorecomplex of proteins that attach to mitotic spindle fibers
leptoteneprophase I stage where chromatin is just condensing
meiosiskaryokinesis that produces four haploid cells from diploid parent
metacentricchromosome with arms of equal length
metaphasestage of karyokinesis when chromosomes line up at cell equator
metaphase plateequator of cell during M-phase
mitosiskaryokinesis producing two diploid cells from a diploid parent
mitotic spindlenetwork of microtubules to which chromosomes attach
nondisjunctionfailure of chromosomes to separate in anaphase I or II
nuclear envelopenuclear membrane + associated proteins
nucleolussite of rRNA synthesis
oogenesisprocess of producing female gametes
oogoniastem cells for eggs
pachytenestage during which bivalent formation is completed
polar microtubulescytoskeleton fibers emanating from regions near ends of cells
prometaphasestage of mitosis where chromosomes attach to mitotic spindle
prophasefirst stage of mitosis
recombinationrearrangement of genetic material
reduction divisionprophase I of meiosis
sex-chromosomedetermine maleness or femaleness
sex-influenced traittrait whose expression follows different patterns in males and females
sex-limited traittrait expressed only in males OR females
sister chromatidschromatin strands of same chromosome
spermmale gamete
spermatidimmature sperm cell
spermatocytemale gamete in meiosis I or II
spermatogenesisprocess of making male gametes
S-phasecell cycle stage where DNA is replicated
somatic cellsnonreproductive cells
syncytiumcell that is coenocytic
telocentricchromosome with centromere at exreme end of chromosome
telophasemitotic or meiotic stage in which separated chromosomes decondense
tetradproducts of a single meiosis
X-linkedtraits passed to sons exclusively from mother
Y-linkedgene inherited by sons exclusively
zygotenemeiotic stage in during which synapsis begins

Professor of Biology
Park University
Parkville, MO

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