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review of basic vocabulary associated with the study of genetics

homozygousalleles are identical
heterozygouswhen the genotype includes both a dominant and a recessive allele
genotypesymbols used to represent the alleles of an organism
phenotypewritten description of the trait we observe in an organism
dominanta trait that masks another; represented by a capital letter
recessivea trait that is only expressed in the homozygous form
allelea varying form of a gene
Johannsenfirst used the word " gene "
Mendelthe father of genetics ( studied pea plants)
Morganproved that genes are located on chromosomes ( worked with fruit flies )
point mutationa mistake in the DNA base sequence
chromosomal mutationthe addition, deletion, or malformation of a chromosome
Punnett squareused to predict probable outcomes of crosses
BB x bbthe genotypes of the parents in a typical monohybrid cross
chromosomescoils of DNA which contain genetic information
XXgenotype for a female
XYgenotype for a male

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