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Medical Terminology, Ch 5, Integumentary System (Other Terms)

Medical Terminology, Ch 5, Integumentary System, Other Terms

epitheliumcells covering external & internal surfaces of the body
epidermisthin, cellular outer layer of the skin
squamous cell layerflat scale-like epithelial cells comprising outermost layers of epidermis
basal layerdeepset region of epidermis
melanocytecell found in the basal layer that gives color to the skin
melanindark brown to black pigment contained in melanocytes
dermisdense, fibrous connective tissue layer of the skin (also known as corium)
sebaceous glandsoil glands in the skin
sebumoily substance secreted by the sebaceous glands
sudoriferous glandssweat glands
subcutaneous layerconnective & adipose tissue layer just under the dermis
collagenprotein substance found in skin & connective tissue
hairoutgrowth of the skin composed of keratin
nailoutgrowth of the skin attached to the distal end of each finger & toe, composed of keratin
keratinhard protein material found in the epidermis, hair, and nails
lesionarea of pathologically altered tissue (two types: primary & secondary)
primary lesionslesions arising from previously normal skin
maculeflat discolored spot on the skin UP to 1 cm across (freckle)
patchflat discolored area on the skin LARGER than 1 cm (vitiligo)
papulesolid mass on the skin UP to 0.5 cm in diameter (nevus/mole)
plaquesolid mass GREATER than 1 cm in diameter, limited to the surface of the skin
nodulesolid mass GREATER than 1 cm, which extends deeper into the epidermis
whealarea of localized skin edema (swellling)(hive)
tumorsolid mass LARGER than 1-2 cm
vesicleelevated fluid-filled sac (blister) within or under the epidermis up to 0.5 cm diameter (fever blister)
bullablister larger than 0.5 cm (second degree burn)
pustulepus filled sac (pimple)
secondary lesionslesions that result in changes in primary lesions
erosionto gnaw away; loss of superficial epidermis leaving an area of moisture but no bleeding
ulceropen sore on the skin or mucous membrane that can bleed & scar & sometimes accompanied by infection
excoriationscratch mark
fissurelinear crack in the skin
scalethin flake of exfoliated epidermis (dandruff)
crustdried residue of serum (body liquid), pus, or blood on the skin (impetigo)
cicatrix of the skinmark left by the healing of a sore or wound showing the replacement of destroyed tissue by fibrous tissue
keloidabnormal overgrowth of scar tissue that is thick & irregular
vascular lesionslesions of a blood vessel
cherry angiomasmall, round, bright red blood vessel tumor on the skin, often on the trunk of the elderly
telangiectasia / spider angiomatiny, red blood vessel lesion formed by the dilation of a group of blood vessels radiating from a central arteriole, most commonly seen on the face, neck, or chest
purpuric lesionslesions as a result of hemorrhages into the skin
petechiaspot; reddish-brown, minute hemorrhagic spots on the skin that indicate a bleeding tendency
ecchymosisbruise; black & blue mark
epidermal tumorsskin tumors arising from the epidermis
nevusbirthmark; congenital malformation on the skin that can be epidermal or vascular-also called a mole
dysplastic nevusmole with precancerous changes
verrucaepidermal tumor caused by a papilloma virus-also called a wart
comedoblackhead caused by a plug of sebum (oil) within the opening of a hair follicle
eruptionappearance of a skin lesion
erythemaredness of skin
pruritussevere itching
rashgeneral term for skin eruptions
suppurationproduction of purulent matter (pus)
vitiligoappearance of white patches on the skin caused by loss of melanin
xerodermadry skin
acneinflammation of the sebaceous glands & hair follicles
albinismpartial or total lack of melanin pigment in the body
burninjury to body tissue caused by heat, chemicals, electricity, radiation, or gases
1st degree burnburn involving only the epidermis
2nd degree burnburn involving the epidermis & the dermis
3rd degree burnburn involving all layers of the skin
dermatitisinflammation of the skin characterized by erythema, pruiritis, and various lesions
dermatosisany disorder of the skin not usually associated with inflammation
exanthematous viral diseaseeruption of the skin caused by a viral disease
rubellaGerman measles (reddish)
rubeola14-day measles (reddish)
varicellachicken pox
eczemaskin condition characterized by the appearance of inflamed, swollen papules & vesicles that crust & scale
carbuncleskin infestions consisting of clusters of furuncles
abscesslocalized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the inflammation of surrounding tissues that heals when drained or excised
gangreneeating sore; death of tissue associated with loss of blood supply
herpes simplex virus Type 1transient viral vesicles (cold sore or fever blisters) that infect the facial area, esp mouth & nose
herpes simplex virus Type 2sexually transmitted ulcer-like lesions of the genital & anorectal skin & mucosa
herpes zostershingles
impetigobacterial skin inflammation marked by pustules that rupture & become crusted, most often occurs around nose & mouth
keratosesthickened areas of epidermis
actinic keratoses / solar keratoseslocalied thickening of the skin caused by excessive exposure to sunlight
seborrheic keratosesbenign wart-like tumors
lupuschronic autoimmune disease charac by inflammation of various parts of the body
cutaneous lupuslimited to the skin
systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)more severe form of lupus involving the skin, joints, & often vital organs
malignant cutaneous neoplasmskin cancer
squamous cell carcinomamalignant tumor of squamous epithelium
basal cell carcinomamalignant tumor of the basal layer of the epidermis
malignant melanomamalignant tumor compose of melanocytes
Kaposi's sarcomamalignant tumor of the walls of blood vessels
onychiainflammation of fingernail or toenail
paronychiainflammation of nail fold
pediculosisinfestation with lice that causes itching & dermatitis
pediculosis capitishead lice
pediculosis pubislice that infects pubic region (also called crabs)
psoriasisitching; chronic, recurrent skin disease marked by silver-gray scales covering red patches on the skin that result from overproduction & thickening of skin cells
scabiescontagious disease caused by a parasite (mite) that invades the skin causing intense itching
seborrheaskin condition marked by thehypersecretion of sebum from the sebaceous glands
tineagroup of fungal skin diseases identified by the body part that is affected
biopsy (Bx)removal of a small piece of tissue for microscropic pathological exam
excisional Bxremoval of an entire lesion
incisional Bxremoval of a selected portion of a lesion
shave Bxtechnique using a surgical blade to "shave" tissue from epidermis & upper dermis
culture and sensitivity (C&S)technique of isolating & growing colonies of microorganism to identy a pathogen & to determine which drugs might be effective
frozen section (FS)surgical method involving cutting a thin piece of tissue from a frozen specimen for immediate pathological examination
skin testmethods for determining the reaction of the body to a given substance by applying it to, or injecting it into, the skin
patch testsubstance is applied topically to the skin on a small piece of blotting paper or wet cloth
chemosurgery / chemical peeltechnique for restoring wrinkled, scarred, or blemished skin by application of an acid solution to "peel" away the top layers of the skin
cryosurgerydestruction of tissue by freezing
dermabrasionsurgical removal of frozen epidermis using wire brushes & emery papers
debridementremoval of dead tissue from a wound or burn site to promote healing & prevent infection
curettagescraping of a wound using a spoon-like cutting instrument; to clean
electrosurgical proceduresuse of electric currents to destroy tissue
electrocauteryuse of an instrument heated by electric current (cautery) to coagulate bleeding areas by burning the tissue
electrodesiccationuse of short, high-frequency, electric currents to destroy tissue by drying (makes direct contact with the skin)
fulgurationto lighten; use of long, high-frequency, electric sparsk to destroy tissue (does not touch the skin)
incision and drainage (I&D)incision and drainage of an infected skin lesion
laser surgerysurgery using a laser in various dermatological procedures to remove lesions, scars, tattoos, etc
laseracronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emmission of Radiation
Mohs' surgerytechnique used to excise tumors of the skin by removing fresh tissue layer by layer until a tumor-free plane is reached
skin graftingtransfer of skin from one body site to another to replace skin lost through burns or injury
autografttransfer to a new position in the body of the same person
homograft / allograftdonor transfer between person of the same species such as human to human
chemotherapytreatment of malignancies, infections, & other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
radiation therapytreatment of neoplastic disease by using ionizing radiation to deter proliferation of malignant cells
sclerotherapyuse of sclerosing agents in treating diseases
ultraviolet therapyuse of ultraviolet light to promote healing of a skin
anestheticdrug that temporarily blocks transmission of nerve conduction to produce a loss of sensation
antibioticdrug that kills or inhibits the growth of micoorganisms
antifungaldrug that kills or prevents the growth of fungi
antihistaminedrug that blocks the effects of histamine in the body
histamineregulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling & inflammation of tissues
anti-inflammatorydrug that reduces inflammation
antipruriticdrug that relieves itching
antiseptican agent that inhibits the growth of infectious microorganisms
heterograftgraft transfer from one animal species to one of another species

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