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Trees and Forests

The following terms are for the Trees and Forests unit in grade 6 Science.

AbioticNon-living components of an environment.
AdaptationModification of an organism so that it adjusts to a new or altered environment.
Allowable CutThe amount of trees which can be taken from the forest annually without significantly altering the balance.
BarkThe visible outer covering of a tree which protects the inside.
BiodiversityMany different species living in balance with their environment.
BioticLiving components of an environment.
CambiumThe growing part of the tree where cells form wood.
CanopyThe top branches and leaves of the trees in a forest.
Carbon DioxideA gas composed of carbon and oxygen, produced during respiration.
CarnivoreA meat eating organism.
Cellular RespirationThe chemical process of releasing energy from sugar and other organic molecules by combining it with oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water as wastes.
ChlorophyllGreen substance in the leaves of plants that traps light energy used in photosynthesis.
ClearcuttingA method of harvesting trees where all standing trees are removed from a section of forest at one time.
ConesSmall, woody structure of coniferous trees which produce the seeds.
ConiferA tree which bears cones and has needles or scale-like leaves. For example: pine, spruce, fir or cedars.
ConsumerAn organism which feeds on other organisms in an ecosystem.
CrownThe top of a tree which forms the canopy.
DeciduousTrees and plants which lose their leaves annually every autumn.
DecomposerAn organism which breaks down material and litter.
Direct SeedingPutting seeds directly into the forest floor rather than planting seedlings.
EcosystemAn area of living and non-living components which form an environment.
Evergreen TreeA tree which does not lose its leaves.
Food ChainA representation of "who eats who" in an ecosystem.
Food WebFeeding relationships in an ecosystem, the transfer of energy throughout an ecosystem.
ForestA group of trees.
Forest FloorThe area around the base of the trees, usually covered with leaves, moss and other plants.
Forest ManagementThe care and use of forests. Forest management works to protect the forests.
Forest ProductsProducts produced from trees.
ForestryThe practice of managing, conserving and creating forests.
Growth RingRings which are present on a cross-section of a tree trunk which represent and determine the age of a tree.
HabitatA preferred place where an animal or plant lives.
Hardwoodwood made by broad-leafed, deciduous trees(aspen, birch and poplar).
Harvestingthe removal of trees for a variety of uses.
HeartwoodThe non-living wood making up most of a tree stem which gives the stem strength.
HerbivoreA plant eating organism.
Inner BarkThe inner layer which serves to take food from the leaves to parts of the tree.
InterdependenceThe state of being dependent upon each other; interconnected.
LichensThe organism resulting from the relationship between an alga and a fungus.
LogThe stem of the tree after it has been felled.
LoggingThe cutting and transporting of trees to the mill to make products.
OmnivoreAn organism which eats both plants and animals.
ParkForested area used for recreation.
PhloemThe inner bark tissue that transports nutrients down to the roots and back up.
Photosynthesisthe process by which a tree produces its own food (sugar).
ProducerAny organism which uses energy fron the sun to produce its own food.
PulpThe soft, moist, soupy mass of wood fibres which paper is made from.
RecreationActivities which are done for leisure.
ReforestationThe building of a new forest by planting or reseeding.
RegenerationThe process of growing back what has been lost. Forests regenerate after a fire with growth of new seedlings.
RespirationThe process of exchanging gases with the environment.
SapThe fluid part of a plant rich in sugar and starch which moves up and down the plant in the phloem tissue of the bark.
SaplingA young tree.
SapwoodThe softer outer layer of the wood in the stem between the cambium and heartwood, responsible for the nutrient transportation.
SeedlingA very young tree.
Seedtree MethodMethod of harvesting forests where a few scattered trees are left standing in order to seed new trees.
Selective HarvestingA method of harvesting where certain trees are selected for cutting. Only these trees are taken.
ShrubA low growing perennial plant.
SnagsA standing tree which has begun to decay or a tree which has been felled but has caught itself on the way down.
StandA group of trees in a given area.
StomataLittle holes on the underside of leaves which allow gases to pass.
Strip-cuttingMethod of harvesting forest in strip like sections, trees left standing are intended to reside.
TranspirationThe loss of water through the pores (stomata) in the leaves.
TreeA perennial woody plant having a well-defined stem at least 3 m high.
XylemMicroscopic tubes running the length of a plant's trunk that conduct water and minerals upward fron the roots. Xylem makes up the wood of the stem.

Byron Thiessen

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