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Musculoskeletal System-Diagnostic, Symptomatic,Surgical and Related Terms

Medical Terminology

carpal tunnel syndromepainful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)
claudicationlameness, limping
crepitationdry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction)
electromyographyuse of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction
hemarthrosiseffusion of blood into a joint cavity
multiple myelomaprimary malignant tumor of blood cells usually arising in bone marrow, usually progressive, and generally fatal
phantom limbillusion, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists. The sensation that pain exists in the removed part is known as phantom limb
prosthesisreplacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
rickets, rachitisform of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency
sequestrumfragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue.
spondylolisthesisany forward slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra over the one below it
spondylosisdegeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues; may cause pressure on nerve roots with subsequent pain or paresthesia in the extremities
spraintearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete. A complete tear of a major ligament is especially painful and disabling. Ligamentous tissue does not heal well because of poor blood supply. Treatment consists of surgical reconstruction of the severed ligament
strainexcessive stretching of tissue composing the tendon or muscle, with no serious damage
subluxationpartial or incomplete dislocation
talipesany number of foot deformities, especially those occurring congenitally; clubfoot
arthrographya series of radiographs taken after injection of a radiopaque substance into a joint cavity, especially the knees or shoulder, in order to outline the contour of the joint
CT scan (bone)radiograph taken as a camera scans the entire body following injection of a radioactive substance; used to evaluate skeletal involvement related to connective tissue disease
CT scan (joint)radiograph taken as a camera scan to determine joint damage throughout the entire body; one of the most sensitive studies for early detection of joint disease
diskographyradiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures in suspected cases of herniated disk
lumbosacral spinal radiographyradiograph of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine. The most common indication for this procedure is lower back pain, to identify or differentiate traumatic, fractures, spondylosis, spondylolisthesis, and metastatic tumor
myelography, myelogramradiography of the spinal cord after injection of contrast medium; used to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
amputationpartial or complete removal of a limb
arthrocentesispuncture of a joint to remove accumulated fluid
arthroclasiasurgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
arthroscopyvisual examination of a joint, especially the knee; used primarily to detect trauma or lesions and to obtain a biopsy of synovial tissue for microscopic examination. Synovial biopsy may also be obtained by needle or surgical incision
bone graftingimplanting or transplanting bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
bursectomyexcision of bursa (a padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints)
laminectomyexcision of the posterior arch of a vertebra; most often performed to relieve the symptoms of a ruptured intervertebral (slipped) disk
open reductiontreatment of bone fracture by the use of surgery to place the bones in proper position (i.e., reducing the fragments)
sequestrectomyexcision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
synovectomyexcision of a synovial membrane
anti-inflammatories, antipyreticsnon-narcotic analgesics used to relive pain, fever, and swelling in musculoskeletal inflammatory diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, gout). The main antirheumatic is aspirin. Prescribed in much larger dosages for arthritis than those used to treat other types of pain. When used for arthritis and gout, these drugs are also called NSAIDs
corticosteroidsmajor anti-inflammatory drugs used for none and joint disorders
gold therapy, aurotherapy, chrysotherapygold compounds used to treat rheumatoid arthritis
relaxantsdrugs that reduce tension and produce relaxation (e.g., muscle relaxants provide therapeutic treatment that specifically relieves muscular tension)
C1, C2, and so onfirst cervical vertebra, second cervical vertebra, and so on
L1, L2, and so onfirst lumbar vertebra, second lumbar vertebra, and so on
T1, T2, and so onfirst thoracic vertebra, second thoracic vertebra, and so on

Lydia Storey

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