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Exam Review

AB
AbsolutismIt teaches that concentration of power/rule by one person leads to corruption. It causes the series of revolutions in the 18th and 19th century.
BaroqueIt was the birth of architecture that is larger than life, fluid, and dramatic. The intricate works of the fine arts are used now to show virtuosity by artists recreating the intricate work of baroque artists It shows the motion of the times through its drama and action.
ChiaroscuroYou can create more lifelike figures through the use of intense lights and darks for perspective. Chiaroscuro technique brings about Rococo.
RococoThe rococo period brought about eroticism and free and graceful movement in art. It served mainly as art to entertain the aristocracy. The frivolousness upper-class life helps bring about neoclassicism.
NeoclassicismIt was a rebirth of the Greek and Roman art. Helps bring about the Enlightenment. It was a reaction against the Rococo.
The EnlightenmentIt was the birth of reason, rationality and modern science. It helped to bring about the scientific revolution because of its search for reason.
SatireIt influenced our sense of humor and all types of entertainment. It was and is still used to expose hypocrisy though irony, sarcasm, exaggeration, and other techniques. It was an accepted form of criticism and was meant to improve the world by embarrassing the wrong doing people into doing things right.
RationalismChanged from explanations from religion based to reason based. Brought about the Age of Discovery and The Scientific Revolution.
The Scientific RevolutionIt is the birth of modern science through observation and experimenting. It changed the way people thought about how to solve a problem. They challenged authority’s power to control your beliefs.
Genre PaintingIt showed pictures of everyday people, not the aristocratic and the rich. It led the way for impressionism.
Gothic styleIt was the precursor to the modern horror movie and is a rebirth in the interest of what happened in the middle ages. Because the horror stories were set in monasteries, it stripped down the power of the church. It also broadened what people could express in literature
RomanticismIt centers around the individual more than the humanity. It brought emotion back into the art world. It also made people more in touch with their rebellious spirit which helped bring about the French Revolution.
RealismIt uncovered the harsh reality of working class life through visual arts and literature. It was a reaction against Romanticism. Aristocratic pity for those who are less fortunate(industrial slums, and working class life)
RevolutionA lot of those revolutions brought about our modern ideas like democracy. It brings about radical change that effects political, social, and economic structure. Such as the French Revolution and geocentric view to heliocentric view.
Agricultural RevolutionNow there is a lot more efficient farming and breeding techniques It changed economy from a subsistence economy to commercial. It also helped bring about large cities.
Industrial RevolutionReplacement of cottage industries by factory systems. Specialization’s of labor force. Urbanization. Mechanical innovations. Gave us factory systems and new mechanical innovation. Economy has become mass production. Increased availability for mind expansion and experimental exploration, also made cities
NationalismBelief that one country holds a distinct economic, social, or cultural identity that places it above all other countries. National pride i.e. American Flag, national anthem, Bald Eagle. Provokes de- colonization
Religion of ProgressThe belief that social, cultural, economic, and political institutions either are inclined naturally to improve or can be improved through human intervention. The secular religion of progress grows out of the Enlightenment and comes to replace the religious belief that this world is dim and dark and that the good life exists only in the next life. Induces human intervention to make things better, i.e. technology Gave people hope and optimism and thought that life could be better
ImperialismAn economic policy followed by “developed” nations, especially in the period of 1850-1900, involving the creation of colonial empires in order to provide raw materials and marketplaces. The moral dimension of imperialism was expressed as the “white man’s burden” to spread his values and institutions to more “primitive” societies. Companies emerged from it like De Beers, and movies like Apocalypse Now Partly caused inspiration for the works of White Man’s Burden, Heart of Darkness.
Purpose of ArtThe reason that artists create art, changing according to historical period and cultural context. For example, the purpose of an Impressionist painting differs from that of a Yoruba Ibeji Figure, which is different from the purpose of a Surrealist painting, etc. Expanded art world to encompass what we call modern art All art has had purpose, even Dada Expanded art world, all art is valid
ImpressionismA style of painting that started in France during the 1860s, emphasizing candid glimpses of ordinary and contemporary subjects as perceived in the moment, as opposed to mythological or religious subjects. Artists strove to show the effects of sunlight on objects at different times of day, used blues and violets instead of grays, and used richly textured surfaces made up of many short brushstrokes (instead of smooth, slick surfaces). Details are often missing in these depictions.It brings texture into art Beginning of abstract art
ModernismAn international movement in all of the arts with roots in Europe and America at the start of the twentieth century. Artists rejected almost everything traditional and constantly reinvented or redefined artistic forms to keep pace with life in the twentieth century. Writers played with shifting and contradictory experiences in order to illustrate the uncertain nature of reality, breaking up the traditional, logically developed plot or providing sudden changes of perspective. Literature also explored new awarenesses of levels of human consciousness, using free association and stream of consciousness techniques to represent the rhythms of the human mind. Image clusters, word fragments and musical patterning demonstrated new uses of language. In the visual arts, modernist works represented a deliberate departure from tradition and the use of innovative forms of expression for feelings and ideas. Artists created abstractions and fantasies, rather than representing what was
PostmodernismDefinition: An artistic movement in reaction to earlier modernist principles, reintroducing traditional or classical elements of style, or carrying modernist styles to extremes. Postmodernism can be thought of as an open-ended story.Significance: People now know that they can go out and explore their own ideas and “finish their stories.” Sometimes old ideas are valid and not as useless as they appear and is similar to Neoclassicism. A reaction from modernism.
Post-ImpressionismDefinition: A French art movement that immediately followed Impressionism. The artists involved showed a greater concern for expression, structure and form than did the Impressionist artists. These artists rejected the emphasis the Impressionists put on naturalism and the depiction of fleeting effects of light. Significance: Reaction from impressionism and led to expressionism. Went against naturalism. Shows that not everything is natural for everyone and it’s okay to be unnatural.
ExistentialismDefinition: A philosophical movement reflected in a number of literary works where writers questioned the meaning of existence in a world lacking preexisting truths, moral laws, or values. The movement represented people’s attempts to regain meaning in an otherwise absurdly perplexing world (a half-century of radical political changes, including two world wars, the overthrow of old monarchies, the dismantling of colonial empires, the spread of Marxism, and the establishments of Communist states). Writers such as Sartre and Camus reflected on the power of humanity to be self-responsible and make deliberate choices, rather than blaming or relying on others. Significance: Gives humanity responsibility to answer questions and to make decisions. It’s all about making decisions. It was a reaction against a central government and absolutism. Lead to fascism, Nazism, cults, and sect.
ExpressionismDefinition: An early twentieth century artistic movement, based in Germany during a time of change and turmoil, sparked by World War I. The major goal of Expressionism was to show how artwork (painting) could have the capacity to transcend expression. The characteristics of such paintings include psychological and expressive strength, pure colors, and distortion of lines and figures, features which carried over to literature, drama, and early (silent) film. Significance: Today, people still use art as a way to express one’s self. It led to people learning who they were and a reaction to Impressionism. Paves the way to modernism and surrealism.
DecolonizationDefinition: Decolonization was the process by which the imperialist powers of Asia and Europe gave up their foreign territories and recognized those territories’ independence between roughly 1945 and 1970. Common threads running through each country’s struggle for independence include the Second World War, which served as the catalyst for most countries’ struggle for independence (independence viewed as a just reward for colonies’ loyalty during the war); the weakened power and wealth of imperialist powers after the War, opening the door for revolt; and the upsurge in nationalism after the war and the embracing of ethnic identities that characterized the post-war world. Some of the most noted experiences of decolonization occurred in Vietnam and Algeria. Significance: Right now, there are not very many colonies and more independent countries. There is also not “land race” or empires. It was the end of imperialism. It lead to people fighting for independence and help
SurrealismDefinition: An art form based on the subconscious, dreams and fantasies, in reaction to more “intellectual” art movements. Inspired by Freud’s theory of the unconscious, surrealists strove to liberate the unconscious imagination and reach a sublime state they called “the marvelous.” Surrealist imagery gains its power by juxtaposing seemingly unrelated elements, suggested hidden connections and possible relationships overlooked by the rational mind. Themes of liberty, metamorphosis, dreams and the irrational also dominate surrealist works. Significance: Today, there are still surrealists, and it challenges the expectations and standards of “normal” today. It was a reaction from modernism.
MinimalismDefinition: A twentieth century style of art stressing the idea of reducing a work of art to the minimum number of colors, values, shapes, lines and textures. No attempt is made to represent or symbolize any other object or experience.Significance: It changed what the whole definition of art, and went against realism and expressionism. Today, it proves that as long as someone is being expressed, something can be art.
DadaDefinition: An early twentieth-century art movement which ridiculed contemporary culture and traditional art forms, taking the pose of being anti-everything, even anti-meaning. Significance: The movement was born in response to World War I, which caused a collapse of social and moral values held to that point. It lead to criticisms, and questions everything. It lead to pop art.
Pop ArtDefinition: An art style that became popular in the United States in the sixties. Pop artists focused attention upon familiar images of the popular culture such as billboards, comic strips, magazine advertisements, and supermarket products. Significance: Makes what is seen everyday seem important. It’s a reaction to Dada because instead of being anti-everything, it is pro-everything.
Stream-of-consciousnessDefinition: The continuous unedited chronological flow of conscious experience through the mind, depicted in art and writing by the Surrealists and other modernists. Significance: It leads to the belief that it is not just what we see that is important, but that what goes on in our subconscious is also important. People see the existence of two worlds. It’s a reaction of realism
BauhausDefinition: A very influential German school of design, the aesthetic of which was the use of materials and forms in a straightforward manner, stripped of superficial embellishment. The term “form follows function” was generated out the Bauhaus. It was founded in 1919, and closed by the Nazis in 1933. Significance: Contradicts the ideas of surrealism because it is all straightforward. Now, people see that form is important and that the process is as important as the product.
Avant-gardeDefinition: Artists and their work are the cutting edge of new ideas, often in opposition to established ideas and traditions; art that is ahead of its time in its innovation and experimentation. Significance: This movement lead to the belief that people can do anything and go to the extreme. It was a reaction against Absolutism, and Nazism.
Einstein’s Theory of RelativityDefinition: The scientific theory which proposes that reality should be understood as four-dimensional continuum (called space-time) that literally could not be expressed either in words or in the old three-dimensional models of Newtonian physics, thus abandoning the concepts of absolute motion and the absolute difference of space and time. Since “relativity” implied “relativism” in the popular mind, Einstein’s discovery, despite his own religious beliefs, was widely thought to pull the ground out from under any certainty—scientific or religious—about the physical world. Ironically, what was scientifically an increasingly accurate perception of the nature of things often seemed just the opposite to the general public. People could no longer refer to “self-evident truths” in nature, or go “back to basics,” when scientists were showing that the “basic” world was not what it seemed. Many writers, however, and Proust among the earliest, welcomed what


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