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volcanoes and earthquakes

earthquakesthe shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
stressa force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
deformationa change in the volume of shape of Earth's crust
shearingstress that puches amass of rock in oppositedirections
compresionstress that squezzes rock until it folds
faulta break in the earth's crust where slabs of rock slip past each other
strike-slip faulta type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up or down motions
normal faulta type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward
hanging wallthe block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault
footwallthe block of rock that forms the lower half of the fault
reverse faulta type of fault where the hanging wall slides upward
fault-block mountiana mountain that forms where a normal fault uplifts a block of rock
foldsa bend in rock that forms where part of the earth's crust has been compressed
anticlinean upward fold in a rock formed by compression in the earth's crust
synclineA downward fold in the rock, formed by compression in the earth's crust
plateaua large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
liqueficationthe process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenly turns loose soil into liquid mud
aftershockan earthquake that occurs after a large earthquake in the same area
tsunamisa large wave produced by an earthquake on the ocean floor
base-isolated buildinga building mounted on bearings, designed to absorb the energy of an earthquake
focusthe point beneath the earth's surface where rock breaks under stress and causes an earthquake
epicenterthe point on the earth's surface directly above an earthquake's surface
seismic wavesa vibration that travels through the earth carring the energy realesed by an earth quake
P wavesA type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground
S wavesa type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
surface wavesa type of seismic wave that forms when P waves and S waves reach the surface
seismogragha device that records ground movements caused by seismic waves
magnitudethe measurement of an earthquake's strength based on seismic waves and movement along faults
Mercalli scalea scale that rates earthquakes according to intensity and damage caused
Richter scalea scale that rates seismic waves as measured by a particular kind of mechanical seismograph
moment magnitudea scale that rates earthquakes by estimating the total energy released
volcanoa weak spot in the earth's crust where magma has come to the surface
lavaliquid magma that reaches the surface
island arca string of islands formed by the volcanoes along a deep ocean trench
magmathe molten mixture of rock forming substances, gases, and water from the mantle
Ring of Firea major belt of volcanoes that rims the Pacific Ocean
hot spotan area where magma from deep within melts through the crust above it
shield volcanoa wide, gently sloping mountain made of layers of lava and formed by quiet eruptions
cinder conea steep cone shaped hill or mountain made of volcanic ash, cinders, and bombs piled up around a volcanoe's opening
composite volcanoa tall, cone shaped mountain in which layers of lava alternate with layers of ash and other volcanic material
calderaa large hole at the top of a volcano
volcanic necka deposit of hardening magma in the volcano's pipe
dikea slab of volcanic rock formed when magma forces itself across rock layers
silla slab of volcanic rock formed when magma squeezes between layers of rock
batholitha mass of rock formed when a large body of magma cooled inside the crust
magma chamberthe pocket beneath the volcano where magma collects
pipea long tube through which magma moves from the magma chamber to the earth's surface
ventthe opening through which molten rock and gas leave the volcano
lava flowthe area covered by lava as it pour out of a volcano's vent
cratera bowl shaped area that forms around a volcano's central opening
silicaa material that is formed from the elements oxygen and silicon
pahoehoea hot, fast moving type of lava that hardens to form smooth, rope-like coils
aaa slow moving type of lava that hardens to form rough chunks -- cooler than a pahoehoe
pyroclastic flowthe expulsion of ash, cynders, bombs, and gas during an explosive volcano eruption
extinctsaid of a volcano when it is unlikely to erupt again
hot springa pool formed by ground water that has risen to the surface after being heated by a nearby body of magma
geysera fountain of water and steam that builds up under pressure under ground and erupts at regular intervalsu
geothermal energyenergy from water and steam that has been heated by magma

peter elkins

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