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Science Test #5 Study Guide - What Plant Parts Do & How They Make Food

Unit A, Chapter 3, Lesson 1 - A64-A69
Unit A, Chapter 4, Lesson 1 - A102-A107

What three plant parts are common to most vascular plants?Roots, stems, and leaves.
Why are roots, stems, and leaves important to plants?These parts make it possible for plants to live and grow almost anywhere.
What do plant roots do?Plant roots anchor plants to the soil, take in water and minerals, and sometimes store food.
Explain prop roots.Prop roots are tree roots that begin above the ground and keep trees that grow in loose, wet soil from being blown over by the wind.
Explain fibrous roots.Fibrous roots are roots that form a thick and tangled mat just under the soil surface. These roots help prevent soil erosion by wind and water because they anchor the soil as well as the plant.
Explain taproots.A single, thick root that grows straight down and can reach water that is deep in the ground. (Some taproots store food for the plant as well).
Where do plants store extra food and water?Some plants store extra foods in their roots, others in their stems, and still a few others, in their leaves.
When do plants make more food than they need?During good weather (in order to survive harsher weather).
What plants that store food in their roots do people grow for food?Beets, carrots, sweet potatoes, and turnips.
Why do plants store extra food and water?Plants store extra food and water as a survival measure because most plants cannot make food in the winter, and because in dry periods they may not be able to get all the water they need from the soil.
What’s the purpose of stems in plants?Stems hold the plant up, support the leaves so they will be in sunlight, and carry water, nutrients, and food to other parts of the plant.
In what way is the stem different in large plants, from smaller plants?Large plants usually have stiff, woody stems.
What is a xylem?Xylem are tubes in the stem that transport water and minerals upward, from the roots to the leaves.
What is a phloem?Phloem are tubes in the stem that move food made in the leaves to other parts of the plant.
What is the purpose of the food plants make and store?Plants make food to help with the growth of roots, stems, and leaves and store it to help them survive brief changes in their environment.
What is the main thing leaves do?They make food for plants.
The food-making process in leaves takes place inside which cell part?Chloroplasts (where chlorophyll is found)
What is chlorophyll?Chlorophyll is a pigment that helps plants use energy from the sun to produce sugars. It also give leaves their green color.
What materials from the environment do plants use to make food?Plants use water and nutrients from the soil, carbon dioxide from the air, and energy from sunlight to make food.
What two products are formed when plants make food?Sugar in the form of glucose (this is food that plants make) & Oxygen (which plants release into the air).
What happens in the stomata (in the leaf)?These tiny holes in a leaf allow carbon dioxide to enter in, and oxygen and water to leave it. Stomata open wide during the day, when the plant is making food, and close at night, to conserve water.
What does the word "photosynthesis" mean?"To put together with light" (photo=light & synthesis=putting together)
Where in the plant does photosynthesis occur?Mainly in a plant’s leaves, and mainly in the upper surface of a leaf where most of the sunlight is easily accessible.
What substance in a plant takes in energy?Chlorophyll.
What are the veins in a plant?A system of xylem and phloem tubes that transports various materials through the plant and helps keep the plant from wilting.
Why are most leaves thin and flat?This adaptation provides a large surface area through which a leaf can get a large amount of sunlight.
Draw a diagram showing the four layers of a plant & provide a brief summary of what they do.1.Upper Epidermis – The upper surface of a leaf that protects the inner cells of the leaf. 2.Palisade Layer – Long, thin, tightly-packed cells where most photosynthesis takes place. 3. Spongy Layer – Loosely packed cells with many air spaces between them in order to allow carbon dioxide to pass among the cells and get to the chloroplasts. 4. Lower Epidermis – The bottom layer that protects the underside of the leaf and has many openings (stomata).
What materials can come in and what materials can come out, through the stomata? When does this happen?When the stomata are open, carbon dioxide can enter a leaf. At the same time, some of the oxygen produced during photosynthesis can leave the leaf. These materials can not come in or come out when the stomata are closed, which is at night or when there isn’t much water.
How do materials needed for photosynthesis get to the chloroplasts?Sunlight passes through the leaf’s upper epidermis and into the chloroplasts of the palisade layer. Water moves from the roots to the leaf through the veins. Carbon dioxide enters through the stomata and moves through the spongy layer to the chloroplasts of the cells.
Draw the formula of photosynthesis and summarize it.Carbon Dioxide & Water + Sunlight & Chlorophyll -> Glucose & Oxygen • "Carbon Dioxide and Water, using Sunlight and Chlorophyll, make Glucose and Oxygen."
Draw the formula of Cellular Respiration & summarize it.Glucose & Oxygen -> Carbon Dioxide & Water + Energy (ATP) • "Glucose and Oxygen make Carbon Dioxide and Water and Energy". The energy that is released through cellular respiration is used for plant growth, repair, and reproduction.
How do plants get energy from food?Through cellular respiration.
Where does cellular respiration take place?Usually happens in the cells of the plant and more specifically inside the cell, in the mitochondria.
Give the definition to: EpidermisThe outer layer of cells of a leaf
Give the definition to: Palisade LayerThe layer of cells in a leaf where most photosynthesis occurs.
Give the definition to: PhotosynthesisThe process by which plants make food.
Give the definition to: Cellular RespirationProcess by which cells release energy from food in order to carry on life's processes.

5th Grade Teacher
McKinley School

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