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HD Ch 7 incomplete, 253?'s

I am using these abbreviations to conserve space. Not all of them are legitimate.
NL = normal
ABNL = abnormal
Sx = symptoms
Sx's = symptoms

AB
epidermisa thin sheet of squamous (flat) epithelial cells, several layers thick.
deepestEpithelial cells are constantly renewed from the _ layer, growing steadily outward to replace worn-away cells.
keratinocytesMost of the cells of the epidermis are _.
keratinKeratinocytes contain this horny material.
toughnessKeratin provides mechanical _ to the outer skin surface.
melaninA few cells in the epidermis are pigment cells that contain _.
colorMelanin imparts to the skin its characteristic _, varying according to race, familial characteristics, age, sun exposure, and other factors.
pigment_ distribution is more intense in certain areas, such as around the nipples and in the anogenital region.
mucous membraneAt bodily orifices, the epidermis undergoes a transition to _.
dermisA tough layer of connective tissue containing blood vessels, sensory nerves, hair follicles, and sebaceous and sweat glands
hairProtect the body surface and also provides some thermal insulation
sebumAnother name for the oil produced by sebaceous glands
surfaceSebum is produced by sebaceous glands and discharged on the skin _
protective, moisture-retainingSebum exerts _ and _ effects on the dermis.
regulationSweat, secreted by sweat glands, help in temperature _.
primarySkin lesions resulting from skin disease
secondarySkin lesions resulting from complications of the basic disease, including the effects of scratching and infection
blebSynonym of bulla
bullaA blister; a thin-walled sac exceeding 1 cm in diameter and containing clear fluid
comedonesplural form of comedo
comedoA papule consisting of a dilated sebaceous duct or gland plugged with keratin debris
cystAn ABNL thick-walled structure containing fluid/semisolid material
ecchymosisA broad zone of red/purple discoloration (more than 1 cm in diameter) due to hemorrhage under the epidermis.
maculeA clearly defined zone of skin, less than 1 cm in diameter, differing from surrounding skin in color but not in texture/elevation
noduleA firm elevation of the skin surface more than 1 cm in diameter
papuleA clearly defined zone of skin, less than 1 cm in diameter, that is raised above surrounding skin, and may differ from it in color or texture
petechiaA pinhead-sized, round, red/purple macule due to extravasation of blood under the epidermis
plaqueA clearly defined zone of skin, more than 1 cm in diameter, that is raised above surrounding skin, and may differ from it in color/texture, may consist of many confluent papules
purpuraA purple zone of hemorrhage in the skin, larger than a petechia, but less than 1 cm in diameter, may be macular (flat) or papular (raised)
pustulea thin-walled sac containing pus
telangiectasisDilation of 1/more small blood vessels visible thru the skin
vesicleA small, thin-walled sac containing clear fluid
whealA hive; a small zone of edema in the skin, which may be red/white, are typically multiple & appear and disappear abruptly
wealA synonym of wheal
weltA synonym of wheal
cicatrixA zone of fibrous tissue occurring at the site of a healed injury/inflammatory or destructive lesion extending into the dermis
scarSynonym of cicatrix
crustA hard, friable, irregular layer of dried blood, serum, pus, tissue debris,/any combination of these adherent to the surface of injured/inflamed skin
erosionA surface defect in the epidermis produced by rubbing/scratching
escharThe crust that forms on a burn
excoriationAbrasion of the epidermal surface by scratching
fissureA linear defect/crack in the continuity of the epidermis
keloidA firm, nodular, irregular, often pigmented mass of fibrous tissue representing a hypertrophic scar
lichenificationThickening, coarsening, & pigment change of skin due to chronic irritation, usually scratching
pitA small depression in the skin resulting from local atrophy/scarring after trauma/inflammation
scabsynonym of crust
scaleA flake of epidermis shed from the skin surface
scarSynonym of cicatrix
ulcerA cutaneous defect extending into the dermis
diascopyInspection of red/purplish lesions thru a transparent plastic/glass plate, which compresses the skin
wood lightan ultraviolet lamp w/ a filter that selects wavelengths under which certain funguses infecting skin/hair fluoresce brightly
Tzanck smearA stained smear of material from an ulcer/vesicle
eczemaSynonym of atopic dermatitis
atopic dermatitisa chronic pruritic condition of the skin
seborrheic dermatitisa scaly dermatitis of parts of the skin richly supplied w/ oil glands
contact dermatitisdermatitis resulting from contact w/ an irritant or allergen
impetigoa spreading bacterial infection of the skin causing itching and crusted sores
folliculitisbacterial infection in hair follicles
pyodermaa general term for any purulent (pus-forming) infection of the skin
abscessa sharply localized bacterial infection, usually due to staphylococci, in which pus forms in a tissue space walled off from surrounding tissues by fibrin, coagulated tissue fluids, & eventually fibrous tissue
cellulitisa type of infection occurring in soft tissues, including skin, whose cardinal features are diffuse & spreading tissue swelling, redness, pain, & fever
erysipelasA severe form of cellulitis, w/ a sharply circumscribed border, bulla formation, & often septicemia
tinea corporis (tinea circinata, ringworm of the body)superficial fungal infection of the skin
tinea capitisringworm of the scalp
keriona complication, w/ boggy edema & exudation of pus thru hair follicle openings
tinea pedisathlete's foot
tinea crurisjock itch
tinea versicolorcaused by Malassezia furfur, consists of variable numbers of white to tan macules w/ very fine scales
onychomycosisSynonym of tinea ungium
tinea ungiumfungal infection of fingernails and tonails
candidiasisinfection of skin & mucous membranes w/ the yeastlike fungus Candida albicans
Herpes Simplexlocal viral infection of skin/mucous membranes, causing vesicular lesions, typically recurrent
verrucaesynonym of warts
wartsvirally induced coarse papules of the skin & mucous membranes
cause of wartsHPV
HPV stands forhuman papillomavirus
__ types of HPV have been identified by immunologic means80
Most types of warts preferentially affect particular areas. Examples areplantar warts on soles of feet, genital warts on the external genitalia or uterine cervix
Transmission of warts is bydirect contact
Genital warts are transmittedsexually
Scratching and picking at warts causesautoinoculation
autoinoculationimplantation of infective viral material at new sites, w/ spread of lesions
Wart virus cannot becultured
Pap smear is _ an adequate screening test for HPV infectionnot
Suspicious lesions treated with dilute _ acid become chalky grey or white if they are wartsacetic
acetowhiteningwhen warts become chalky grey or white when exposed to acetic acid
Cervical lesions that are suspicious for warts areexamined with a colposcope
colposcopea low power microscope w/ light source, adapted for viewing the cervix thru a vaginal speculum
HPV infection is chronic and difficult toeradicate
HPV infection may revolve _ after a time, but meanwhile other lesions may have developed, or the condition may have been _ to others.spontaneously, transmitted
_ infection with certain types of _ is now recognized as a leading cause of _ carcinoma, and is probably also associated with genital cancers in mengenital, HPV, cervical
Choice of treatment of warts depends on the _ of infection.site
Surgical excision, electrocautery, laser ablation, and _ are currently the most popular methods for treating wartscryotherapy
Other treatments for warts includeOther treatments for warts include
scabiesA chronic, pruritic eruption due to borrowing of mites in the skin
The cause of scabies is the itch mite, _, a microscopic parasite that burrows under the skin surface and lays eggsSarcoptes scabiei
Transmission of scabies is from person to person by _ contact, probably also by _ contact such as sharing of toilets.direct, indirect
In scabies, itching is due not to the mere presence of mites butto a sensitivity reaction to foreign mite protein
In scabies, symptoms may not appear for _ after infectionabout a month
History of scabies: chronic _, more intense at night, associated with formation of reddish papules and linear raised lesionsitching
The itching of scabies is more intense atnight
The itching of scabies is associated with formation of reddish _ and linear _ lesions.papules, raised
The papules and burrows of scabies is found most often on the finger webs, wrists, elbows, nipples, _, and genitalia.buttocks
The papules and burrows of scabies are never found on theface or scalp
In scabies, there may be evidence of _, _, or _.excoriation, lichenification, secondary infection
An older name for scabies is"seven year itch"
In scabies, secondary infection may cause _ in debilitated persons, especially childrenextensive weeping and crusting
In scabies, topical treatment with _ is generally curative.permethrin, lindane, or crotamiton
In scabies, itching may be treated with oral or topicalantipruritics
phthiriasisa synonym of pediculosis
pediculosishuman cutaneous infestation w/ lice
Pediculosis corporisthe body louse
Pediculosis capitisthe head louse
Pediculosis pubisthe pubic louse
visibleLice are _ to the naked eye
surfaceLice live and breathe on the body _
bloodLice derive nourishment from the host's _
skinLice obtain the host's blood by piercing the _
hairsLice remain in position by grasping body or scalp _
nits_: lice eggs
attachLice _ their nits to hairs
weeksLice eggs hatch in about two _ and females become sexually mature in another two _
monthA single pregnant female louse can grow to a substantial colony in about a _
person to personLice transmission is from _
sexuallyPubic louse infestation is a _ transmitted disease
indirect_ transmission can occur in lice infestation
fecesIn pubic lice infestation, the minute dark spots that may be noted on underwear are deposits of louse _
blueIn lice infestation, fine _ patches may be noted on skin in sites where lice have fed
orificesLice do not burrow under the skin or penetrate body _
transmitthe Pthirus lose does not _ disease
typhus, plaguethe Pediculus louse is a vector of _ and _ in parts of the world where these diseases are endemic
pyrethrin, lindaneTreatment of lice is with topical _ or _, left on the skin long enough to kill both adult lice and eggs
curativeTreatment of lice infestation withpyrethrin or lindane is _
acne vulgarisa chronic eruption of comedones, papules, pustules, and cysts occurring primarily in adolescence
unknownThe ultimate cause of acne vulgaris is _
geneticIn acne vulgaris, there may be a _ predisposition
malesacne vulgaris tends to be worse in _
castrated malesacne vulgaris does not occur in _
acne, acneform_ or _ lesions develop in Cushing syndrome
chloracne_ is acne vulgaris due to industrial exposure to chlorine
iodide, iodismmedicinal administration of _ can bring the comedones of _
emotional stressAcne typically worsens during times of _
sebaceousAcne lesions develop in oil (_) glands.
sebumAcne develops apparently as a result of heightened _ production that leads to retention of _ and plugging of gland ducts
comedonesThe plugged, enlarged glands of acne are called _
chemicalIn acne, sebum plugs darken as a result of _ changes
cystsvery large comedones form _
fatty acidsretained sebum is broken down by bacteria or spontaneous chemical changes to form _,which cause local inflammation&induce a foreign body reaction
aggravatedsymptoms of acne vulgaris are _ by application of greasy or oily cosmetics&by repetitive picking&squeezing of lesions
protractedhealing of acne vulgaris pustules may be _,& may leave pits/scars
blackheads, whiteheads, papules, pustules, cystsappearance of lesions of acne vulgaris vary in type (_), number of distribution,& severity
face, upper back,& chest, rarely elsewhereacne vulgaris usually appears in these places
isotretinoinIn acne vulgaris, _ taken by mouth for 4-6 months induces lengthy, usually permanent resolution of acne
severeisotretinoin is reserved for _ cases because of side effects
rosacea (acne rosacea)a reddish facial eruption occurring in the middle-aged and elderly
unknownthe cause of rosacea is _
migraine headachesrosacea occurs more commonly in persons w/ _
antibiotic treatmentrosacea responds to _
topical adrenocorticosteroidsprolonged application of potent _ to the face can induce a reaction similar to rosacea
burning&flushing of the face, w/ patches or diffuse rosy tint, papules, and sometimes pustules or excessive sebum productionhistory of rosacea
papules,pustules,telangiectases,oilinessIn rosacea _ are usually present to some degree
telangiectasesvisible patches of dilated skin vessels
corneainflammation of the eyelids & even the _ may occur in rosacea
hyperplasiain some patients with rosacea, marked _ of the tissues of the nose eventually develops
rhinophymamarked hyperplasia of the nose
chronicrosacea is highly _, but treatment provides a fair degree of control
metronidazoletopical _ or other antibiotics provide improvement of symptoms in rosacea
antibiotics, corticosteroidsoral _ and topical _ may be required in rosacea
obliteratelasers can _ telangiectases in rosacea
requiredFor severe rhinophyma in rosacea, plastic surgery is _
hivesan acute, often transitory eruption of intensely itchy papules/wheals
urticariasynonym of hives
histamineurticaria is caused by a release of _ from mast cells in the dermis
local edema, capillary dilatation, and stimulation of nerve endingswhen histamine is released from mast cells in urticaria, the results is _
factorsseveral _ can induce urticaria
cholinergic urticariawhen urticaria occurs due to heat, it's called
dermographismwhen urticaria occurs due to simple stroking of the skin, it's called
sudden onset of localized/generalized eruption of intensely itchy wheals/papules, which may be transitoryhistory of urticaria
physical examination of urticariawheals (raised white or red papules) surrounded by erythema
wheals may be _ or _ and _round, scalloped, confluent
scratchingsigns of _ may be present in urticaria
causeblood studies and allergic screening may indicate the underlying _, but usually do not
one or two weeksurticaria often occurs in attacks at intervals of a few hours, but typically resolves within _ unless continued exposure to the causitive agent occurs
occult infection or malignancyurticaria persisting beyond 1 month may point to _
epinephrinesevere urticaria responds to intramuscular _
antihistamines such as diphenhydramine or hydroxyzine_ may be given orally or by injection to control an acute attack of urticaria
the nonsedating antihistamines terfenadine and astemizole_ may be useful prophylactically in urticaria even though they are ineffective in other forms of pruritus
doxepin, a tricyclic antidepressant_ is effective in urticaria either orally or topically
topical and systemic corticosteroidsin severe cases of urticaria, _ may be used
vitiligopatches of depigmentation widely distributed over the skin
vitiligo is due todestruction of pigment cells
1%vitiligo is found in about _ of the population
diabetes mellitus, hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, hypoadrenocorticism (Addison disease),& gastric carcinomavitiligo occurs w/ increased frequency in person w/ _
PUVA treatment, using topical methoxsalen and ultraviolet light_ may provide some improvement of vitiligo
psoralen + ultraviolet APUVA stands for
cosmeticsthe best method of management of vitiligo is often judicioius usse of _
psoriasisa chronic skin disorder characterized by scaly plaques
increased proliferation of epidermal cellscause of psoriasis
evidently an autoimmune disorderpsoriasis is _, to which some persons are genetically predisposed
history of psoriasisplaques of scaly thickening of the skin, particularly the scalp, knees, and elbows,w/ moderate itching. Nails and joints may be affected
reddish-purple thickened plaques of skin covered w/ silvery, firmly adherent scalesin psoriasis, _ is part of the physical examination
pitting/strippling, inflammation_ of nails and _ of joints, particularly the distal interphalangeal joints, may be noted in psoriasis
guttate psoriasisin _ the plaques are small and numerous
Koebner phenomenon_: (formation of lesions at sites of trauma) may be noted in guttate psoriasis
in psoriasis, skin biopsy (_) shows characteristic changes in the epidermisusually unnecessary
treatment of psoriasistopical steroids, calcipotriene, tar ointments; tar shampoos of the scalp. UVB; PUVA. Oral methotrexate, etretinate, cyclosporine
ultraviolet BUVB stands for
pityriasis roseaa mild,benign,self-limited scaly eruption
viralthe cause of pityriasis rosea is possibly _
spring and fallpityriasis rosea is more common in
2:3the male:female attack rate of pityriasis rosea is
demonstratedin pityriasis rosea,person-to-person transmission has not been _
history of pityriasisappearance of a solitary scaly patch on the skin,followed in 1-2 weeks by a generalized eruption of similar but smaller lesions
mild or absentin pityriasis, itching is _
physical examination of pityriasis roseaa widespread eruption of oval fawn-colored macules w/ fine scales on the trunk&proximal extremities
sparedIn pityriasis rosea, the hands, face, and feet are typically _
trunk, segmental, Christmas treetreeIn pityriasis rosea, _ lesions follow a _ distribution, especially on the back, giving a "_" appearance
secondary syphilis,serologic, syphilisbecause pityriasis simulates _, a _ test for _ is often done to rule out that possibility
6 weeksin pityriasis rosea, lesions disappear spontaneously in about _
ultraviolet treatments and topical or oral steroids_ may abolish Sx's, but treatment is seldom needed since itching is mild
basal cell carcinoma, sunlight, facea slowly growing, waxy or pearly papules w/ telangiectatic vessels, appearing on parts of the body exposed to _, particularly the _
middle-aged, elderlybasal cell carcinoma mostly appears in the _ or _
ulceration & widespread erosionin basal cell carcinoma, _ may occur if treatment is delayed
metastasis, rarein basal cell carcinoma, _ is _
surgical excision, chemosurgery, cryotherapytreatment of basal cell carcinoma is by _, including Mohs _ & _
squamous cell carcinomaa hard red nodule appearing on sun-exposed skin, usually in a middle-aged or elderly peson
actinic keratosisin squamous cell carcinoma, the lesion may develop in a pre-existing _ & may rapidly ulcerate
uncommonin squamous cell carcinoma, metastasis is _
excisiontreatment of squamous cell carcinoma is by _
malignant melanomaa pigmented malignancy of the skin that develops in persons of all ages,progresses rapidly,metastasizes widely,&is fatal w/o treatment
ninthamong malignancies,melanoma ranks _ in incidence,& incidence is increasing
sun exposureat least some cases of melanoma are due to
benignmelanoma can develop anew or in a previously _ nevus
nevuspigmented spot
irregularity of shape/border, uneven distribution of pigment,pink,blue,/black color,bleeding/ulceration,& rapid enlargementfeatures of a pigmented lesion that suggest melanoma are
treatment_ of melanoma is by excision
thickness of the tumor, depth of invasionin melanoma, prognosis depends on the _ or the _
Breslow classificationin melanoma, the thickness of the tumor
Clark classificationin melanoma, the depth of invasion
radiation & chemotherapyin metastatic melanoma, _ may prolong survival
not living tissuethe visible part of the scalp & body hair is _, but hair follicles are subject to a number of disorders
alopeciamedical term for baldness
baldnesshair loss leading to temporary/permanent,patchy/diffuse zones of _ can result from scarring after trauma or after severe bacterial/fungal infection
systemic lupus erythematosus, iron deficiency, pituitary deficiencybaldness can be a symptom of these systemic diseases
brow & vertexmale pattern baldness affects the _
geneticallymale pattern baldness is _ determined
elevated blood levels of androgens from any causemale pattern baldness may affect genetically predisposed women with _
minoxidilbaldness often responds to topical _ in persons of both sexes
cycleseach hair follicle normally passes thru _ b/n anagen & telogen
telogen effluviuma transitory generalized thinning of scalp hair due to a systemic condition that puts the growth of a large number of hairs into the telogen phase at the same time,w/resultant shedding of hair
pregnancy,oral contraceptives,excessive dieting,high fever,& any severe physical/emotional stresscauses of baldness include
2 to 4 monthshair thinning becomes noticeable after a latent period of _,& typically resolves spontaneously w/in a few months
hirsutismexcessive/cosmetically objectionable hairiness

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