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Chapter 13 "Advances in Genetics"

electrophoresisprocess that uses electrical charges to separate fragments in wells on agarose gel
mutagenssubstances that increase probability of mutation
mutationchange in the DNA sequence of a gene
deletionremoval of a base/bases from DNA sequence
duplicationbase/bases repeated within a DNA sequence
inversionorder of bases reversed within a DNA sequence
translocationsequence of bases removed from one region and added to another region of a DNA sequence
Barbara McClintockscientist studied corn and discovered that certain genes change location on chromosomes
pedigreechart that illustrates a family history of a particular trait
genetic disorders”diseases
chromosomal abnormalitiesdisorders caused by missing chromosomes or chromosome parts
multifactorial disorderscuased by several genes
cystic fibrosisrecessive autosomal disorder of Caucasians in which mucus of lung very viscous
genetic counseloruses pedigrees to inform individuals of probability of genetic disorders appearing in offspring
phenylketonuria (PKU)autosomal recessive disorder of accumulation of incompletely metabolized phenylalanine cuases mental retardation
sickle cell diseaseautosomal recessive disorder in African-Americans resulting in abnormal hemoglobin
hypertensionhigh blood pressure
amniocentesisremoval of amniotic fluid for genetic testing
chorionic villi sampling (CVS)removal of placental tissue for genetic testing
karyotypesarrangement of homologous chromosomes to determine genetic disorders
ultrasounduse of sound waves to form image of embryo
gene therapyreplacement of incorrect DNA sequences with corrected sequences to eliminate genetic disorders
genetic engineeringusing knowledge of genetics to alter an organism’s genetic potential
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP)DNA fragments formed by restriction enzyme
recombinant DNADNA with segments coming from more than one organism
restriction enzymesrecognize specific DNA sequences and cut DNA into fragments between these sequences
DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)reactions that are used to amplify or make multiple copiesfragments created by restriction enzymes
DNA fingerprintingpattern of DNA fragments formed by electrophoresis that are unique to an individual

Science Instructor
Bronxville High School
Bronxville, NY

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