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Section 3.3 Cycles of Matter

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The changing of water from gas form (water vapor) to liquid form is called ____.condensation
The changing of water from liquid form to gas form (water vapor) at temperatures below boiling is called ___.evaporation
Evaporation from the surface of plant leaves is called ____.Transpiration
When water condenses and then starts to fall as either rain or snow, these two forms of water can both be called ______.precipitation
When organisms burn their food in the presence of oxygen, the two waste products are carbon dioxide and ___.water vapor
Water that ends up deep below the ground is called ___.ground water
Unlike energy, matter gets _______ within and between ecosystems.recycled
Matter gets recycled within and between ecosystems through ____ cyclesbiogeochemical cycles (bio=living, geo refers to geology and chemical refers to chemistry)
The chemical substances that an organism requires to live are called ___.nutrients
Producers require nitrogen to be turned into ____ and ____, which are used to make _____.nitrates and nitrites, used to make proteins
_______ is required by plants in order to make molecules like DNA and RNA plus an energy carrying molecule called ATP.Phosphorus
Which two types of elements are the key ingredients in fertilizer, because plants need them to grow.Nitrogen and phosphorus
The process by which bacteria convert nitrogen gas (N2) into ammonia (NH3) is called ____.nitrogen fixation
The conversion of nitrogen from one form to another in the nitrogen cycle is carried out primarily by ___.bacteria
Which type of plants help make soil more fertile because they can fix nitrogen out of the air and convert it into useable forms?Legumes (they include peas, beans, lentils, peanuts, alfalfa. Legumes actually don't do the converting themselves, but have bacteria that grow in their root nodules that can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and turn it into fertilizer)
A lake that receives a large input of a limiting nutrient, like nitrogen or phosphorus, can develop a(n) ____.algal bloom,
The rate at which producers create organic matter (by growing) in an ecosystem is called ____.primary productivity
What is most likely to be a limiting nutrient in a freshwater pond?phosphorus
If a nutrient is in such a short supply in an ecosystem that it affects the growth of organisms, it is called a(n) ___.limiting nutrient
Aquatic ecosystems are most likely to receive heavy doses of limiting nutrients that can cause algal blooms from the runoff from ___.fertilized fields (like farmland or golf courses)
Which gas is given off by decomposers as they decompose dead organisms?carbon dioxide (because they are getting energy from the dead organisms through cellular respiration)
Which two gases are given off when organisms burn food for energy through the process of cellular respiration?carbon dioxide and water vapor
Which two substances are required by producers in order to conduct photosynthesis?carbon dioxide and water (which are converted to food and oxygen during photosynthesis)
Carbon dioxide and water are ____ during photosynthesis.required
Carbon dioxide and water are ___ during cellular respiration.produced
Photosynthesis is pretty much the exact opposite process of ___.cellular respiration (photosynthesis requires energy to make food from carbon dioxide and water while cellular respiration burns food using oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water along with energy)
Where in the carbon cycle is carbon stored in a process that took millions of years to build up?Carbon took millions of years to build up underground as fossil fuels such as coal, oil and gas. (Unfortunately, it is now being released back into the atmosphere quickly over the last two hundred years as we've started burning the fossil fuels for energy)
What is the process called where nitrogen containing compounds in dead organisms are converted back into nitrogen gas (N2) so that nitrogen can re-enter the atmosphere?denitrification
Ammonia is converted by bacteria into ________ so that it can be used by plants to grow.nitrates and nitrites (which are also key ingredients in fertilizer)
Why is carbon dioxide increasing in the atmosphere?Fossil fuels containing carbon are being burned for energy (creating CO2) now-a-days. This has was not happening very much until the start of the industrial revolution.
What are the 3 human activities most responsible for the recent increase in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere?Burning fossil fuels, clearing forests by burning them, and industrial processes.,
Which of the cycles would not be possible without the help of bacteria?Nitrogen

Truman High School

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